These post replies need to be substantial and constructive in nature. They should add to the contentof the post and evaluate/analyze that post answer. including one scholarly peer-reviewed reference. Minimum 100 words. Introduction The term "policy" refers to a set of standard principles that guide a course of action. The government establishes public policies, whereas organizations create private or institutional policies for institutional use. Many public policies are legally binding, which means that they must be followed by individuals and institutions in both the public and private sectors. Private institution policies, on the other hand, do not have the force of law; however, compliance with such policies may be required within an institution (Pollack Porter et al., 2018). Describe the process of policy development, implementation, and modification Several factors must be considered when developing sound health policies. To begin, the policymaker should be objective and dispassionate to the greatest extent possible. This means that there should be no conflict of interest or improper financial or professional incentive for decision makers. Policymakers should be able to understand the data and arguments presented, evaluate them objectively, and fairly balance competing values. It is not necessary or even desirable for policymakers to be "experts" in many areas of health policy, as long as they have access to expert advice. Second, policymaking bodies should be held accountable to the public for their decisions. If science or existing societal values do not support a decision, a democratic means of changing the decision is frequently desired. Democratic societies are built on the principle that government action affecting individuals and communities is open to public scrutiny. Periodic elections allow the public to ask for explanations and for public officials to articulate and justify their decisions (GOSTIN, 1995). Educators, policymakers, and researchers are gradually accepting that change is a process rather than an event. Implementation, like development, necessitates time, specialized personnel, and resources. A number of issues and implications arise from viewing innovation development and implementation as a process. The planning, facilitation, and evaluation of the change process differ depending on whether the innovation is a single innovation, an innovation bundle, hyperinnovation, or large—scale innovation. Instead of top down or bottom up, all participants must strive to level the playing field. Change processes are most successful when policymakers, practitioners, and researchers recognize that they are all part of the same effort and each plays an important role in achieving successful implementation (Hall, 2021). Discuss transition from policy to a legislative proposal. Evidence-based policies are critical for addressing a wide range of public health issues. Major public health achievements in the United States have been made possible by policies such as mandatory blood donor screening, a federal cigarette excise tax, folic acid fortification of cereal, and seat belt laws. Indeed, using evidence to inform policymaking is a key principle for effective public health policy change, and it can promote the adoption of effective policies and programs, the efficient use of resources, and the more effective implementation of policies and programs (Smith et al., 2022). Evidence-based policies are critical for addressing a wide range of public health issues. Major public health achievements in the United States have been made possible by policies such as mandatory blood donor screening, a federal cigarette excise tax, folic acid fortification of cereal, and seat belt laws. Indeed, using evidence to inform policymaking is a key principle for effective public health policy change, and it can promote the adoption of effective policies and programs, the efficient use of resources, and the more effective implementation of policies and programs (Pollack Porter et al., 2018). Reference Pollack Porter, K. M., Rutkow, L., & McGinty, E. E. (2018). The importance of policy change for addressing public health problems. Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974). Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243447/ GOSTIN, L. A. W. R. E. N. C. E. (1995). The formulation of health policy by the three branches ... - NCBI bookshelf. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK231979/. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK231979/ Hall, G. E. (2021). The local educational change process and policy implementation 1. International Perspectives on Educational Reform and Policy Implementation, 101–121. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203761427-10 Smith, N. R., Mazzucca, S., Hall, M. G., Hassmiller Lich, K., Brownson, R. C., & Frerichs, L. (2022, March 4). Opportunities to improve policy dissemination by tailoring communication materials to the research priorities of legislators. Implementation science communications. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8895761/ These post replies need to be substantial and constructive in nature. They should add to the content of the post and evaluate/analyze that post answer. including one scholarly peer-reviewed reference. Minimum 100 words. Introduction A policy is a rule or guideline to achieve a particular goal. After a policy has been ratified, it must be put into action, which may require the passage of legislation, the establishment of regulations, or the development of programs. To determine whether or not the policy is delivering the anticipated results, it is required to evaluate after it has been put into effect. For instance, if analysis reveals that a particular policy is inefficient, then it is possible that the policy ought to be revised. The process of developing, enacting, and putting into effect policies is referred to as policy development. Identifying a problem by policymakers is often the first step in the process that leads to developing a legislative proposal. After the most suitable course of action has been determined, it will be formalized as a bill and presented to the legislative body. If the measure is passed through the legislative process, it will eventually be codified into law(Mokitimi et al., 2018). Process of policy development, implementation, and modification Problem identification, policy design, policy adoption, and policy evaluation are the four main stages of policy development. Understanding the nature of a challenge is crucial to crafting an effective policy response(Ireri et al., 2020). The first step in solving any social or economic issue is for policymakers to pinpoint what that issue is. Several methods, such as research, expert consultation, and public hearings, can help with this(Agyepong & Adjei, 2008). Once a problem has been recognized, policymakers can go on to the next step: creating solutions. Policy formulation is the second stage of the policymaking process. Once a policy issue has been recognized, the next step is formulating a solution. Legislating, regulating, and programming are only a few possible means to this end. An issue's viability can only be determined after a proposed remedy has been developed and evaluated. Finally, a policy is adopted, marking the end of the policy development process. The previously planned plan of action is now being implemented. That could involve passing laws, putting regulations in place, or launching a new program. A policy can't just sit on the shelf waiting to be implemented. Phase four of the policy development process entails implementing the policy in question. The previous phase's policy is now being put into effect(Pence, n.d.). This could include providing staff with guidance and instruction, sharing materials, and disseminating news. Assessing the policy's efficacy after it has been put into place is essential. The final phase of any policymaking process involves assessing the policy's success. This is where policymakers examine whether or not their choices led to the expected outcomes. This may necessitate research, consultation with experts, or even public hearings(Agyepong & Adjei, 2008). Changes to the policy will depend on the evaluation's conclusions. Developing new regulations frequently involves loops rather than a straight path. Policymakers may have to go back to an earlier phase to make the necessary adjustments to the policy. It is necessary to modify the formulation of a policy if an evaluation reveals that it is unsuccessful. If the review finds that the policy is not being carried out effectively, then adjustments may need to be made. The policy formulation process is essential because it allows for creating policies that successfully address social and economic concerns(Pence, n.d.). Transition from policy to a legislative proposal The process of policy development includes the following steps: developing, voting on, and enforcing the policy. The formulation of policy and its subsequent implementation can occur at any governmental level, from the national to the local, through any legal or regulatory mechanism, or even through direct citizen action. When lawmakers identify a problem they believe needs fixing, they propose legislation rather than making policy changes. They identify problems, think of solutions, and evaluate their efficacy. The next stage presents a bill outlining the action plan to the legislative body. If the legislature approves the measure, then it becomes law. Many different groups and individuals, including politicians, journalists, special-interest lobbyists, and the general public, have sway over public policy. The time and energy required to complete the policy formulation process might be substantial(Diamant et al., n.d.). The first step in developing any policy is identifying the issue. Policymakers may be alerted to a problem by members of the public, the media, or particular interest organizations. Independent research, public hearings, and official inquiries can all help reveal issues. After discovering an issue, policymakers must define it and consider possible solutions. They may arrange meetings or hearings to gather information about the topic and hear opinions from experts and the broader public. They might also fund studies to learn more about the problem and how to fix it(Ireri et al., 2020). Once an issue has been defined and alternative solutions identified, officials must evaluate how well each one works. Hearings or meetings may gather information about the solutions and opinions from experts and the public. Additionally, they may mandate studies into the solutions' performance. Next, a law articulating the plan of action should be introduced in the legislature. If the legislature approves the measure, then it becomes law. The time and energy required to complete the policy formulation process might be substantial(Diamant et al., n.d.). References Agyepong, I. A., & Adjei, S. (2008). Public social policy development and implementation : a case study of the Ghana National Health Insurance scheme. February, 150–160. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czn002 Diamant, M., Groothuis, M., Steunenberg, B., Passchier, R., & Pack, S. (n.d.). Legislative processes in transition. Ireri, B. R., King, M., Wangila, E., & Thuranira, S. (2020). Structural modification challenges facing the implementation of inclusive education policy in public secondary schools in Tharaka-Nithi County. 12(December), 147–158. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJEAPS2020.0661 Mokitimi, S., Schneider, M., & Vries, P. J. De. (2018). Child and adolescent mental health policy in South Africa : history , current policy development and implementation , and policy analysis. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-018-0213-3 Pence, A. R. (n.d.). ECD Policy Development and Implementation in Africa. 5(3), 13–29. These post replies need to be substantial and constructive in nature. They should add to the content of the post and evaluate/analyze that post answer. including one scholarly peer-reviewed reference. Minimum 100 words. Since December 2019 the world has been facing an outbreak of a novel infectious disease known as Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), that has rapidly spread globally and has now been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organisation(Tsamakis et al., 2020) The COVID-19 pandemic has put inordinate pressure on frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) and hospitals. HCWs are under chronic emotional stress, affected by burnout, moral distress and interpersonal issues with peers or supervisors during the pandemic. All of these can lead to lower levels of patient safety (Brborović et al., 2022) The various barriers to health products that must be comprehensively addressed to mount a successful global, regional, national and subnational response to present and future epidemics and pandemics in LMICs. Global public health authorities and international development donor and recipient country actors have had several opportunities (during previous infectious disease outbreaks) in the last few years to tackle some of the barriers noted in this review. The COVID-19 pandemic is a watershed moment for global health development actors to move beyond rhetoric to long-lasting reforms and actions that ensure global equitable access to health products during infectious disease epidemics, especially in low-resource settings (Boro & Stoll, 2022) Many were able to retrospectively identify the relevance of QI principles in the implementation of rapid changes during the pandemic. After the initial shock, grief, and anxiety with the onset of the pandemic, staff employed coping mechanisms and employed a person centric approach to deliver care in an environment which is safe for patients and staff. The pandemic not only accelerated the pace of change but also facilitated it by introducing staff to a new, flexible, and less hierarchical way of working which removed many traditional barriers faced by QI teams. However, to sustain these changes and the improved QI context, there is a need for individuals, teams, organisations, and health systems to reflect, learn and address the risks and challenges that the experience has highlighted (Khurshid et al., 2021) Reference: Boro, E., & Stoll, B. (2022). Barriers to COVID-19 Health Products in Low-and Middle-Income Countries During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Rapid Systematic Review and Evidence Synthesis. Frontiers in Public Health, 10. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2022.928065 Brborović, O., Brborović, H., & Hrain, L. (2022). The COVID-19 Pandemic Crisis and Patient Safety Culture: A Mixed-Method Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(4), 2237. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042237 Khurshid, Z., McAuliffe, E., & De Brún, A. (2021). Exploring healthcare staff narratives to understand the role of quality improvement methods in innovative practices during COVID-19. BMC Health Services Research, 21, 1271. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-07297-0 Tsamakis, K., Rizos, E., Manolis, A. J., Chaidou, S., Kympouropoulos, S., Spartalis, E., Spandidos, D. A., Tsiptsios, D., & Triantafyllis, A. S. (2020). [Comment] COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on mental health of healthcare professionals. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 19(6), 3451– 3453. https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8646 These post replies need to be substantial and constructive in nature. They should add to the content of the post and evaluate/analyze that post answer. including one scholarly peer-reviewed reference. Minimum 100 words. COVID-19 pandemic The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is causing a global health, economic, and social crisis. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causes COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2)(Nurunnabi, 2021). The COVID-19 pandemic has influenced healthcare safety and quality Under Polish law, everyone in the country is entitled to immediate medical attention in life-threatening situations. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted healthcare issues in Poland, as well as the system's shortcomings in terms of patient access to healthcare services. The increasing number of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) infections overburdened healthcare systems with limited human resources, threatening the continuity of healthcare services in health and lifethreatening situations. The duration of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused patient queues and the time spent waiting for health services to be extended. The way medical entities operate has changed dramatically(Leszczy¨½ski, 2022). Barriers that the COVID-19 pandemic has created Following the first infected cases, the government was very proactive in preventing COVID-19, for example, a range of measures was implemented, including border measures: travel restrictions (including on international flights and internal public transportation and taxis); and lockdown and curfews (suspending prayers at mosques; closing all schools, universities, and shopping malls; suspending employee attendance at government and private workplaces (with the exception of critical infrastructure). (Nurunnabi, 2021) Healthcare quality improvement to mitigate these barriers and drive quality in healthcare in the future Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving service that aims to increase access to high-quality, efficient, and cost-effective healthcare, particularly in the midst of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Telemedicine, as defined by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), is "a service that seeks to improve a patient's health by enabling two-way, real-time interactive communication between the patient and a physician at a remote site. During the pandemic, telemedicine has the potential to greatly improve patient access to high-quality, low-cost care while maintaining physical separation for the safety of both patients and providers. Text, email, and mobile phone applications, as well as data from wearable devices, can be used to share information between patients and clinicians in addition to virtual visits(Kichloo, 2020). References Kichloo, A. (2020). Telemedicine, the current COVID-19 pandemic, and the future: a narrative review and perspectives moving forward in the USA. Fam Med Community Health, DOI: 10.1136/fmch-2020000530. Leszczy¨½ski, P. K. (2022). Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Quality of Health Services Provided by Emergency Medical Services and Emergency Departments in the Opinion of Patients: Pilot Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health., DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19031232. Nurunnabi, M. (2021). The preventive strategies of the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. J Microbiol Immunol Infect, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2020.07.023.