attached
GA (For research use only: T =_________)
Research Study – Florida International University – Fall, 2022
Part One: Study Instructions
Thank you for participating in this study. The purpose of the study is simple: we want to see how many math
problems you can complete correctly! But this is also a competition among the student researchers. We will
compare participants to see who completed the most math problems. The student researcher associated with the
best performance* will receive class bonus points unavailable to other students (we will use a random drawing
if there is a tie). So, complete as many math problems as you can to help the student who recruited you win!
*We will determine the “best performance” by looking at the average number of math problems that you
and two other participants complete. That is, the researcher who recruited you is recruiting two other
participants. We will combine your score with the scores provided by the other two participants to find
the average group score for all three of you. We will award bonus points to the student researcher who
recruited the three participants with the highest average group completion score.
There is no minimum or maximum number of math problems that we expect you to complete. Please use your
best judgment and stop when you feel you have completed as many problems as you want. While you are free to
use a calculator, that is optional. If you need additional room beyond the space provided below, ask the student
researcher for spare scratch paper.
Part Two: Math Problems
The math problems are relatively simple. We want you to square as many numbers as you can in numerical
sequence. That is, multiply each number by itself. For example, 1 X 1 = 1 and 2 X 2 = 4, and 3 X 3 = 9, etc.
Although you can stop at any time, please do not skip any cells in the numerical sequence.
1 X 1 = 2 X 2 = 3 X 3 = 4 X 4 = 5 X 5 = 6 X 6 = 7 X 7 =
8 X 8 = 9 X 9 = 10 X 10 = 11 X 11 = 12 X 12 = 13 X 13 = 14 X 14 =
15 X 15 = 16 X 16 = 17 X 17 = 18 X 18 = 19 X 19 = 20 X 20 = 21 X 21 =
22 X 22 = 23 X 23 = 24 X 24 = 25 X 25 = 26 X 26 = 27 X 27 = 28 X 28 =
29 X 29 = 30 X 30 = 31 X 31 = 32 X 32 = 33 X 33 = 34 X 34 = 35 X 35 =
36 X 36 = 37 X 37 = 38 X 38 = 39 X 39 = 40 X 40 = 41 X 41 = 42 X 42 =
If you want to complete more math problems, please ask the researcher for spare scratch paper (optional).
Once you feel you are finished, complete the questions on the next page.
Part Three: Thoughts About Your Performance
Circle the best fitting number for each statement below
1). I believe that I completed more math problems than the average participant.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
2). I believe that I could have completed more math problems than I did.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
3). I feel like my performance will be individually examined by the researchers (i.e., not anonymous).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
4). I feel like the goal of the study (to help get bonus points for the student who recruited me) is important.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
5). I found solving math problems in this experiment enjoyable.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
6). I believe that participants may “slack off” or “take a free ride” if they know that other participants are
contributing to the total score.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
______________________________________________________________________________________
Part Four: Demographic Information
1. What is your gender (Select one)? ____ Male ____ Female ____ NonBinary ____ Other
2. What is your age? __________
3. What is your race/ethnicity? (Select one):
____ White ____ Latino/a ____ Indigenous ____ Black ____ Asian ____ MENA
____ Other: _______________________ (Please Indicate)
4. Is English your first language? (Select one): _____ Yes _____ No
If no, what is your first language? __________________
5. Are you a student at FIU (Select one): _____ Yes ______ No
6. What is your relationship status? _____ Single / No Relationship _____ In a relationship
7. Without looking back, recall the instructions we gave you about how we determine the “Best Performance”
in Part One. What did we tell you was the basis for the “Best Performance” (Mark one with an X)?:
___ Highest individual score ___ Highest total group score ___ Highest average group score
IT (For research use only: T =_________)
Research Study – Florida International University – Fall, 2022
Part One: Study Instructions
Thank you for participating in this study. The purpose of the study is simple: we want to see how many math
problems you can complete correctly! But this is also a competition among the student researchers. We will
compare participants to see who completed the most math problems. The student researcher associated with the
best performance* will receive class bonus points unavailable to other students (we will use a random drawing
if there is a tie). So, complete as many math problems as you can to help the student who recruited you win!
*We will determine the “best performance” by looking at the total number of math problems that you
and other participants complete. We will award bonus points to the student researcher who recruited the
participant with the highest individual completion score.
There is no minimum or maximum number of math problems that we expect you to complete. Please use your
best judgment and stop when you feel you have completed as many problems as you want. While you are free to
use a calculator, that is optional. If you need additional room beyond the space provided below, ask the student
researcher for spare scratch paper.
Part Two: Math Problems
The math problems are relatively simple. We want you to square as many numbers as you can in numerical
sequence. That is, multiply each number by itself. For example, 1 X 1 = 1 and 2 X 2 = 4, and 3 X 3 = 9, etc.
Although you can stop at any time, please do not skip any cells in the numerical sequence.
1 X 1 = 2 X 2 = 3 X 3 = 4 X 4 = 5 X 5 = 6 X 6 = 7 X 7 =
8 X 8 = 9 X 9 = 10 X 10 = 11 X 11 = 12 X 12 = 13 X 13 = 14 X 14 =
15 X 15 = 16 X 16 = 17 X 17 = 18 X 18 = 19 X 19 = 20 X 20 = 21 X 21 =
22 X 22 = 23 X 23 = 24 X 24 = 25 X 25 = 26 X 26 = 27 X 27 = 28 X 28 =
29 X 29 = 30 X 30 = 31 X 31 = 32 X 32 = 33 X 33 = 34 X 34 = 35 X 35 =
36 X 36 = 37 X 37 = 38 X 38 = 39 X 39 = 40 X 40 = 41 X 41 = 42 X 42 =
If you want to complete more math problems, please ask the researcher for spare scratch paper (optional).
Once you feel you are finished, complete the questions on the next page.
Part Three: Thoughts About Your Performance
Circle the best fitting number for each statement below
1). I believe that I completed more math problems than the average participant.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
2). I believe that I could have completed more math problems than I did.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
3). I feel like my performance will be individually examined by the researchers (i.e., not anonymous).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
4). I feel like the goal of the study (to help get bonus points for the student who recruited me) is important.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
5). I found solving math problems in this experiment enjoyable.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
6). I believe that participants may “slack off” or “take a free ride” if they know that other participants are
contributing to the total score.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
______________________________________________________________________________________
Part Four: Demographic Information
1. What is your gender (Select one)? ____ Male ____ Female ____ NonBinary ____ Other
2. What is your age? __________
3. What is your race/ethnicity? (Select one):
____ White ____ Latino/a ____ Indigenous ____ Black ____ Asian ____ MENA
____ Other: _______________________ (Please Indicate)
4. Is English your first language? (Select one): _____ Yes _____ No
If no, what is your first language? __________________
5. Are you a student at FIU (Select one): _____ Yes ______ No
6. What is your relationship status? _____ Single / No Relationship _____ In a relationship
7. Without looking back, recall the instructions we gave you about how we determine the “Best Performance”
in Part One. What did we tell you was the basis for the “Best Performance” (Mark one with an X)?:
___ Highest individual score ___ Highest total group score ___ Highest average group score
GT (For research use only: T =_________)
Research Study – Florida International University – Fall, 2022
Part One: Study Instructions
Thank you for participating in this study. The purpose of the study is simple: we want to see how many math
problems you can complete correctly! But this is also a competition among the student researchers. We will
compare participants to see who completed the most math problems. The student researcher associated with the
best performance* will receive class bonus points unavailable to other students (we will use a random drawing
if there is a tie). So, complete as many math problems as you can to help the student who recruited you win!
*We will determine the “best performance” by looking at the total number of math problems that you
and two other participants complete. That is, the researcher who recruited you is recruiting two other
participants. We will combine your score with the scores provided by the other two participants to find
the total group score for all three of you. We will award bonus points to the student researcher who
recruited the three participants with the highest total completion score.
There is no minimum or maximum number of math problems that we expect you to complete. Please use your
best judgment and stop when you feel you have completed as many problems as you want. While you are free to
use a calculator, that is optional. If you need additional room beyond the space provided below, ask the student
researcher for spare scratch paper.
Part Two: Math Problems
The math problems are relatively simple. We want you to square as many numbers as you can in numerical
sequence. That is, multiply each number by itself. For example, 1 X 1 = 1 and 2 X 2 = 4, and 3 X 3 = 9, etc.
Although you can stop at any time, please do not skip any cells in the numerical sequence.
1 X 1 = 2 X 2 = 3 X 3 = 4 X 4 = 5 X 5 = 6 X 6 = 7 X 7 =
8 X 8 = 9 X 9 = 10 X 10 = 11 X 11 = 12 X 12 = 13 X 13 = 14 X 14 =
15 X 15 = 16 X 16 = 17 X 17 = 18 X 18 = 19 X 19 = 20 X 20 = 21 X 21 =
22 X 22 = 23 X 23 = 24 X 24 = 25 X 25 = 26 X 26 = 27 X 27 = 28 X 28 =
29 X 29 = 30 X 30 = 31 X 31 = 32 X 32 = 33 X 33 = 34 X 34 = 35 X 35 =
36 X 36 = 37 X 37 = 38 X 38 = 39 X 39 = 40 X 40 = 41 X 41 = 42 X 42 =
If you want to complete more math problems, please ask the researcher for spare scratch paper (optional).
Once you feel you are finished, complete the questions on the next page.
Part Three: Thoughts About Your Performance
Circle the best fitting number for each statement below
1). I believe that I completed more math problems than the average participant.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
2). I believe that I could have completed more math problems than I did.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
3). I feel like my performance will be individually examined by the researchers (i.e., not anonymous).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
4). I feel like the goal of the study (to help get bonus points for the student who recruited me) is important.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
5). I found solving math problems in this experiment enjoyable.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
6). I believe that participants may “slack off” or “take a free ride” if they know that other participants are
contributing to the total score.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
______________________________________________________________________________________
Part Four: Demographic Information
1. What is your gender (Select one)? ____ Male ____ Female ____ NonBinary ____ Other
2. What is your age? __________
3. What is your race/ethnicity? (Select one):
____ White ____ Latino/a ____ Indigenous ____ Black ____ Asian ____ MENA
____ Other: _______________________ (Please Indicate)
4. Is English your first language? (Select one): _____ Yes _____ No
If no, what is your first language? __________________
5. Are you a student at FIU (Select one): _____ Yes ______ No
6. What is your relationship status? _____ Single / No Relationship _____ In a relationship
7. Without looking back, recall the instructions we gave you about how we determine the “Best Performance”
in Part One. What did we tell you was the basis for the “Best Performance” (Mark one with an X)?:
___ Highest individual score ___ Highest total group score ___ Highest average group score
Checklist – Paper Two: Study One Methods, Results, and Discussion
Use the check sheet below to make sure your paper is the best it can be! Make sure you answer “
Yes
” to all questions before submitting your paper! The first two sections duplicate the Paper I checklist, but those elements in
purple are unique to you Methods / Results / Discussion Paper II Please note that the 7th Edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual has some flexibility in terms of language, font, spacing, and other items, but that papers in this course MUST adhere to the guidelines listed before.
Yes
No
Yes
No
Header
Yes
No
General Paper Format (This section is identical to the Paper I Checklist)


Yes 
No 

1. Is 

2. Is 

3. Do you have one inch margins on all sides of the paper (one inch from the top of the page, one inch from the bottom, and one inch from each side) 

4. Are the first lines of all paragraphs indented roughly ½ inch? 

5. Are your paragraphs aligned left? (That is, text should be flush left, with lines lining up on the left of the page, but text should NOT line up on the right side of the page – it should look ragged) 

6. Do you need help figuring out how to configure a word document in APA format (inserting headers, page numbers, indents, etc.)? If YES or NO, I recommend watching this video which walks you through setting up an APA formatted paper! 

Title page (This section is 

Header 

1. Is your header title in ALL CAPS, and is it a shorter version of your real title? 

2. Is your Running head in 12 point Times New Roman font? 

3. Do you have a page number that is flush right (also in 12 point Times New Roman font)? 

4. Is your header title 50 characters or less (including spaces and punctuation)? 

Title / Name / Institution 

1. Is your title focused and short, avoiding unnecessary words and abbreviations that serve no purpose (as recommended by the APA)? 

2. Does your title describe your general paper theme (while 

3. Do all title words with three letters or more start with a capital letter? 

4. Is your title in 

5. If your title is longer than one line, is it doublespaced (like everything else in your paper)? 

6. Are your name and institution correct? 

7. Are your title, name, and institution elements centered and in 12 point Times New Roman font? 

8. Does your title start three or four lines under the margin at the top of the page? 

9. Are there two spaces between your paper title and your name? 

Methods Section (New Information in this section) 

1. Is your header title present and identical to your header title on the title page? 

2. Is your header title in ALL CAPS and 12 point Times New Roman font? 

3. Does your header on this second page omit the phrase “Running head” 

4. Do you have a page number starting on page 2 

Title for the methods section 

1. Is the word “ 

Participants 

1. Do you have the word “ 

2. Did you list out your demographic characteristics, including gender, age, and ethnicity / race? 

3. Did you provide the descriptive statistics for (means and standard deviations) for age and italicize the letters 

4. Did you provide frequencies for gender and ethnicity/race and italicize the 

5. Did you refer readers to 

Materials and Procedure 

1. Is the phrase “ 

2. Did you mention informed consent? (Most likely oral consent for study one) 

3. Did you discuss any instructions the participant may have read? 

4. Did you thoroughly describe any stimulus material that might have occurred before your actual independent variables (and photos, descriptions, profiles, questions, puzzles, etc.) that are a part of your study? 

5. Did you thoroughly describe your independent variable (IV) in enough depth and detail that another researcher could recreate your materials? 

6. Did you give your IV a name that matches up with the name you refer to in the results section? 

7. Did you describe all of your most relevant dependent variables, noting the scales you used (e.g. “Yes / No”, “A scale ranging from 1 (not at all likely) to 9 (very likely))” for EACH of your DVs? 

8. Did you fully describe what participants went through in the study, noting the order in which they received study materials (e.g. first informed consent, then IVs, DVs, and debriefing)? 

9. Did you fully describe your attention check (manipulation check) with enough detail that a reader unfamiliar with your study could recreate it, and did you include the scale for that attention check question? 

10. Did you use the past tense when describing your methods (seeing how you already collected the data, and therefore do not discuss what participants will do)? 
Yes
No
Results Section (New Information in this section) 
1. Do you have the word “ 
2. Was the first dependent variable you looked at your manipulation check question, and did you make sure you analyzed the correct DV? 
3. Did you analyze at least two a. Note: Often your instructors prefer that you run two different ANOVAs. Ask them if they want a tTest as one of the analysis. 
4. Did you mention both the IV and the DV by name when talking about your analysis? 
5. Did you include means and standard deviations within parentheses for 
6. Did you italicize the letters 
7. If your ANOVA was significant, did you include post hoc tests? 
8. Did you round ALL numbers to two decimal places (with the exception of the 
Yes
No
Discussion Section (New Information in this section) 
1. Do you have the word “ 
2. Did you remind your reader of your hypothesis? 
3. Did you mention whether you supported or did not support your hypothesis? 
Yes
No
Tables Section – Study One (New Information in this section) 
1. Do you have the word “ 
2. In 
3. In 
4. In 
5. In 
6. Do the analyses in Tables 3 and 4 focus on DIFFERENT dependent variables? (Make sure you answer YES on this one!) 
Yes
No
Writing Quality 
1. Did you proofread your paper, go to the writing center, go to the research methods help center, or use the Pearson writer to make sure your paper flows well? 
2. Did you use the past tense (which is recommended, since your papers in this class will reflect work you already did rather than work you will do)? 
3. Did you use a scientific / objective terms like “people”, “participants”. “users”, “readers”, etc. (as opposed to subjective words like “you”, “we”, “me”, “I”, or “us”, etc.)? Note that you can use the word “I” when referring to your own work. 
Rubric Paper Two
Criteria 
Ratings 

Title Page Criteria
( 1 point ) 1. Header (in ALL CAPS) 4. Your Name 
Meets all criteria 1 point 
Does not meet all criteria 0 points 

Methods Section Criteria ( 15 points ) 1. Includes section titles in proper APA format 2. Provides participant data (demographics) accurately and thoroughly in APA format 3. Provides demographic table callout 4. Discusses consent 5. Describes the formatting of the material (e.g. Paper Survey, Online Survey, etc.) 6. Describes participant selection 7. Describes the independent variable(s) in detail so a reader could replicate your study design 8. Describes the dependent variable(s) in similar detail, including they type of scale used and scale endpoints 9. Describes the procedure in detail 10. Avoids repetitiveness. 
Meets all criteria 15 points 
Mets at least 8 criteria 1 0 to 1 4 points 
Meets at least 6 criteria 5 to 9 points 
Meets at least 4 criteria 1 to 4 points 
Meets 0 to 3 criteria 0 
Results Section Criteria ( 1 0 point s ) 1. Provides three statistical analyses (minimum) on three different dependent variables 2. Includes independent and dependent variable names for each analysis consistent with the same names used in the methods section 3. Provides statistical outcomes in proper APA formatting ( 4. Provides all relevant numbers for each analysis (e.g. percentages for the chi square; means and SDs for each condition in the independent variable) 5. Analyzes hypothesesrelevant variables 
Meets all criteria 1 0 points 
Meets at least 4 criteria 7 to 9 points 
Meets at least 3 criteria 4 to 6 points 
Meets at least 2 criteria 1 to 3 points 
Meets 0 to 1 criteria 0 
Discussion Section Criteria (2 point) 1. Reviews the hypothesis 2. Compares the findings to the hypotheses 3. Avoids statistical numbers 
Meets all criteria 2 points 
Meets 2 criteria 1 point 
Meets 0 to 1 criteria 0 point 
Tables Criteria (4 point) 1. Includes all four tables with callouts intext 2. Demographics table (the descriptives table for age and frequency tables for gender and race) 3. Chi square table (with crosstab table and chi square table) 4. One ANOVA tables (with descriptives, ANOVA table, and post hoc table as needed) 5. One additional ANOVA table 
Meets all criteria 4 points 
Meets 3 criteria 2 to 3 points 
Meets 2 criteria 1 to 2 points 
Meets 0 to 1 criteria 0 points 
Writing Quality Criteria (3 points) 1. Uses proper spelling and punctuation 2. Has good transition between sentences 3. Includes good detail that informs the reader about important information in each paper section 4. Avoids plagiarism 
Meets all criteria 3 points 
Meets 2 to 3 criteria 2 points 
Meets 0 to 1 criteria 0 to 1 points 
STUDY ONE METHODS, RESULTS DISCUSSION INSTRUCTIONS 1
STUDY ONE METHODS, RESULTS DISCUSSION INSTRUCTIONS 1
Instructions for Paper II: Study One Methods, Results, and Discussion (Worth 35 Points)
Ryan J. Winter
Florida International University
Paper II: Table of Contents
Item
Page #
Title Page
1
Table of Contents
2
Purposes of Paper II – Study One Methods, Results and Discussion
3
1. The psychological purpose (Paper overview)
3
2. The APA formatting purpose
3
3. The writing purpose
3
Notes About Paper I – Study One Literature Review
4
The Title Page (1 point)
5
The Abstract (Not needed for this paper)
5
The Methods Section (15 points)
5
1. Formatting the methods section
5
2. The participant section
5
3. The materials and procedure section
6
The Results Section (10 points)
7
1. Formatting the results section
7
2. The results section content requirements
8
3. The results section and the chi square
8
4. The results section and the OneWay ANOVA
9
5. The results section and the
tTest
11
6. Statistics order recommendation for the results section
12
Tables (4 points)
12
1. Tables overview
12
2. Tables placement
12
3. How to copy table content
13
4. Table formatting
13
Discussion Study One (2 points)
13
Writing Quality (3 points)
1
4
Other Helpful Hints
14
Paper II Grade Rubric
1
5
Purposes of Paper II: Study One Methods, Results, and Discussion
1.
The psychological purpose (Paper overview)
The psychological purpose behind Paper II is to make sure you can tell your reader what you did in your study, how you did it, and what you found. By now you have read several empirical studies in psychology, and you should be familiar with the Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. Now is your chance to write your own Methods, Results and Discussion!
Like the studies you looked at for Paper I, you will provide information about
your participants, materials, and procedure in your Methods section. Your participant section goes first, and it includes descriptive statistics about your sample (means and standard deviations for age as well as percentages for gender and race/ethnicity). Your materials and procedure sections include information about what you did and how you did it.
You should write this section for an audience who is unfamiliar with your specific study, but assume that they do know research methods. Thus educate your reader about your materials and procedure, giving enough detail so they could replicate the study. This includes explicitly describing your independent and dependent variables and talking about how you presented those variables to your participants. My suggestion is to look over the articles that you summarized in Paper I and see how they wrote their Methods. This will give you a good idea regarding the level of depth and detail you need in your own Methods section.
Your Results section follows. The purpose of this section is to make sure you can show how you analyzed the data and describe what you found. You will have a lot of help in this section from your lab materials (especially your lab powerpoint presentations).
Finally, I want you to include a short discussion of your findings. Tell me if you supported or did not support your hypotheses and explain why you got those results (you can actually speculate here if you like, but make it “educated” speculation!)
2.
The APA formatting purpose
The second purpose of Paper II: Methods, Results and Discussion is to once again teach you proper American Psychological Association (APA) formatting for these sections. In the pages below, I will tell you how to format your paper using APA style. There are a lot of very specific requirements in APA papers (as specific as what to italicize), so pay attention to the instructions below as well as the APA formatting lecture presentation!
3.
The writing purpose
Finally, this paper is intended to help you figure out how to write a Methods, Results, and Discussion section. Many students find statistics intimidating, but my hope here is that writing this paper will help you understand both the logic and format of statistics in results sections. We will once again give you a lot of feedback and help in this paper, which will be able to revise for your Papers IV and V later in the course. Make sure that you write this for an audience familiar with APA methods and results, but also for someone who needs you to tell them what you found.
Notes About Paper II – Study One Methods, Results, and Discussion
Note #1: The plagiarism limit is higher in this paper (up to 65%) since your classmates are doing the same design. Do not go higher than that, though! 65% is the maximum allowed!
Note #2: You do NOT need to include your literature review / hypotheses in Paper II, as Paper II focuses just on your methods, results, and discussion. However, you will include those Paper I components later in Paper III, so do keep them handy!
Note #3: Again, sorry for the length of the instructions! They are long, but take it one section at a time and you will get all of the content you need for your paper. It also increases your chances of getting a great grade!
Instructions for Paper II: Study One Methods, Results, and Discussion (Worth 35 Points)
The Title Page (1 point)
The title page for your Paper II is identical to the one you used for Paper I: Literature Review Study One. For proper APA formatting, either copy your title page from Paper I or review the title page instructions I gave you in Paper I. You can change your title if you like, but make sure it describes your study (much like a title in PsycInfo describes what the authors did in their paper)
Abstract?
You DO NOT need an abstract for Paper II: Methods, Results, and Discussion (Study One). You cannot write it until you run both study one and two, so omit it for now
The Methods Section (15 points)
1.
Formatting the methods section (Page 2).
a. Write
Methods at the top of this page, make it bold, and center it
b.
For Paper II, the methods section will come on page 2. But in Paper Three in a few weeks, the methods will come immediately after the study one literature review.
2.
The participant section
a.
Formatting: The participants section comes next. The word
Participants is bolded and left justified.
b.
Your participants: Tell me who your participants were (college students, family members, friends?) and how many there were.
i.
Numbers versus Letters
1. If a number starts a sentence, then spell out the number. That is, “Twohundred and five participants participated in this study.”
2. If a number is midsentence, you can use numerals. “There were 205 participants in this study.”
3. Keep numbers consistent. If you spell out a number at the start of the sentence, carry it through and spell out all numbers in that sentence.
ii. For statistics:
1. Always use numbers (
M = 5.43,
SD = 1.12, 67%, etc.)
2. Include a 0 before decimal places (
SD = 0.12, not
SD = .12), though a 0 is not needed in front of the
p value (
p = .003, not
p = 0.003)
3. For
p, always use the exact number (e.g.
p = .003 or
p = .34) unless your tabled value is .000. In that case, use
p < .001
iii. For scales, always use numbers (1 = Strongly Disagree to 6 = Strongly Agree)
c.
Frequencies and/or descriptive statistics for relevant demographics.
i. For some variables—like ethnicity and gender—you only need to provide frequency information (the number of participants who fit that category). “There were 100 men (49%) and 105 women (51%) in the study.” Or “The sample was 49% male (
n = 100) and 51% female (
n = 105).”
ii. Other variables—like age—are continuous (rather than categorical), so use descriptive statistics here (the range, mean, and the standard deviation). “Participants ranged in age from 18 to 77 (
M = 24.01,
SD = 3.50).” or “The average age of participants was 24.01 (
SD = 3.50).” You can find out how to get this information by reading the lab powerpoint and the crash course quiz documents
iii. Make sure to italicize the
n,
M, and
SD (the letters, not the numbers)
d.
Tables: Make sure to include a “callout” to the table. That is, write “See Table 1” at the end of the participant section to direct readers to your demographics table.
i. Note that the table comes immediately after the callout intext (not at the end of the paper or in an appendix).
3.
The materials and procedure section
a.
Formatting
: Include the phrase
Materials and Procedure in bold font. This title should be aligned on the left of the page.
i. There is no set minimum or maximum on the length of the methods section, but I expect
at least a page or two (but probably more. Your research script took up several pages – you should provide a similar level of depth and detail in your methods section). Missing important aspects of your IVs and DVs or presenting them in a confusing manner will lower your score.
ii. Make sure that another researcher can replicate your study based on your methods section. If they cannot do so, then you may not have enough detail!
b.
Content: Provide information about your materials and your procedure. I suggest starting with the procedure and discussing the materials in the order in which participants saw them. That is, tell your reader what your participants did in the order that participants did them.
Be specific here.
i. First, talk about the oral informed consent procedure.
ii. Second, talk about the three versions of the Social Loafing survey and the three “Social Loafing Conditions”: Individual Total, Group Total, or Group Average. Provide enough detail so that your readers know how the three conditions differ. Imagine I do not know what you did, but I need to able to replicate your design. YOU need to give me enough
detail so I can do so.
1. I want to stress this “detail” concept – Pretend that I have no idea what you did or what your materials look like, but I want to replicate your study. Thus, teach me your design and your procedures. Be VERY clear and detailed about what you did and how you did it so I can replicate your study design.
a. If there are advertisements in your survey, describe them. If there are pictures, describe them. If these items are identical across all conditions, note that fact.
2. Importantly, describe how the surveys differ. That is, you have three versions of the loafing survey. Describe how the three versions differ. Also make sure to describe how they are similar! (Hint: They are a lot more similar than they are different)
3. Note: At the end of the semester, someone other than your instructor / TA may grade your final paper. They may know NOTHING about Social Loafing, but they do know methods. Write this section for that methodology expert (but topic novice).
iii. Third, talk about your dependent variables (that is, your survey questions. For these dependent variables, once again provide enough detail so I know
exactly what questions you asked. For example, “Participants provided their gender, age, and race”. For other dependent variables, tell me how the responses were recorded (yes/no, true/false, a scale of 1 to 6, etc.). If you used a scale, note the endpoints and descriptors. For example, “Participants were asked, ‘How frustrating was this task?’, and they responded on a scale from 1 (very frustrating) to 6 (not at all frustrating).’”
1. If you only tell me that the scale was from 1 to 6, I won’t know if a 1 is a good score a bad score. Similarly, if you say the scale ranged from “very frustrating” to “not at all frustrating”, I won’t know if the number 1 relates to the “very” end of the scale or the “not at all” end. Thus, I need BOTH numbers and descriptors.
2. Your study has a few important DVs (including Total Math Score in Part Two as well as several of the “Performance Thoughts” in Part Three). For these DVs, tell me what they are
specifically!
iv. Fourth, make sure to highlight which specific DVs you analyzed. If there are DVs participants completed but you did not analyze it, feel free to say those that participants completed them but since they were not analyzed, they are not discussed further.
v. Fifth, make sure to be specific about your attention / manipulation check question! What did you
specifically ask? How did you measure participant responses to the manipulation check? Was it multiple choice, true/false, fillintheblank, or a scale? If you don’t tell your reader, they won’t know how you measured that variable.
vi. Finally, mention debriefing. You don’t need a lot of detail here since most researchers understand what goes into a generic debriefing statement
c.
Copying survey material:
i. Guess what! You can copy and paste materials that participants saw in your survey directly into your materials and procedure section. These are not direct quotes since they are your materials, so feel free to copy instructions from the survey, specific questions you asked, or independent variable information. That gives the reader great insight into the materials that participants saw, so feel free to copy and paste!
ii. As another option, you can refer the reader to an appendix with the actual surveys (though I prefer that you discuss the questions in the text, since going to an appendix disrupts the flow of information and forces the reader to flip through pages to find information).
The Results Section (10 points)
1.
Formatting the results section
a. Write
Results at the top of this section, center it, and use boldface. This section comes directly at the end of the methods section, so the results section DOES NOT start on its own page.
i. Note that some instructors may not do this Loafing study, but the results section should follow the same guidelines regardless of your study topic.
2.
The results section content requirements
a. The results are the hardest part of this paper, and your lab powerpoints can help you (also refer to the crash course statistics quizzes, which walk you through similar analyses!).
b. For Paper Two, include statistics about the most important variables in your study, including your IV (Loafing Condition – Individual Total, Group Total, or Group Average) and the DVs you feel are most important to your hypotheses. I suggest focusing on both the Part Two Math Total Score as well as either Question 1 or Question 2 in Part Three, as both are hypotheses relevant.
c. So let me be VERY specific:
You must run
at least three different analyses on three
different dependent variables
. One analysis must be an ANOVA (again, I recommend looking the Total Math Score from Part Two). The second analysis should also be an ANOVA (where I recommend looking at either Question 1 or Question 2 in Part Three). The final analysis
must be a chi square for question 7 in Part Four of your survey (which asks participants to recall how we defined the “Best Performance” – Highest individual score, Highest total group score, Highest average group score). This is our manipulation check, which looks at the three answer options in question 7).
i.
Note: Although you
can
run a
tTest rather than a second ANOVA, I do not recommend it. A
tTest only looks at two conditions, but there are three conditions in your study (Individual Total, Group Total, or Group Average), so ignoring one of them does not make empirical sense. Why collect data for three conditions and ignore one of them?
ii. If you do use a
tTest, just note that you cannot look at the same DV as your ANOVA. We count the number of DVs that you analyze – NOT the number of statistical tests you run! So, you cannot run an ANOVA on Question 1 and then run a
tTest on question 1 again. That is only one DV. Still, I suggest not running a
tTest at all for this study.
3.
The results section and the chi square
a. Your first analysis will be a chi square, which is used for categorical DVs (yes / no; yes / no / maybe; male / female, or … in our case, “What did we tell you was the basis for the “Best Performance” from Question 7 in Part Four). So, let’s discuss the chi square, which does not look at mean scores but rather counts how many responses there are compared to how many you would expect.
b. The specific question asked, “Without looking back, recall the instructions we determine the “Best Performance” in Part One. What did we tell you was the basis for the “Best Performance” (Mark one with an X):” The options were Highest individual score, Highest total group score, Highest average group score. Here, you can run a chi square looking at the frequencies of the three answer options
c. We are interested in the chi square (
χ2) and
p value. We also provide
percentages for each of our groups (we do not include means and
SDs since you need interval data for those statistics). There are two ways to analyze a chi square:
i. The easy way: Look at how many participants in each category accurately recall the expectation manipulation.
1.
Significant finding: “Using Social Loafing Condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total vs. Group Average) as our independent variable and recall of how we defined “Best Performance” as the dependent variable, we saw a significant effect,
χ2(4) = 4.49,
p = .021. Most participants in the “Individual Total” condition recalled being told that the Best Performance involves the highest individual score (78%); most participants in the “Group Total” condition recalled being told that the Best Performance involves the highest total group score (66%); and most participants in the “Group Average” condition recalled being told that the Best Performance involves the highest average group score (90%). Cramer’s V was strong for this analysis. This indicates that participants saw our manipulation as intended.”
2.
Nonsignificant finding: “Using Social Loafing Condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total vs. Group Average) as our independent variable and recall of how we defined “Best Performance” as the dependent variable, we did not see a significant effect,
χ2(4) = 1.49,
p = .065. Participants did not differ in their recall of how we defined Best Performance between the “Individual Total” condition (54%), the “Group Total” condition (53%) or “Group Average” condition (53%). Cramer’s V was weak for this analysis. This indicates that participants did not see our manipulation as intended.”
ii. The hard way: You can also look at “overall correct” vs. “overall incorrect” recall. This is a bit trickier to run in SPSS, since you need to
add up ALL those who correctly remembered the correct manipulation (those in the Individual Total condition who Highest individual total + those in the Group Total condition who recalled Highest group total + those in the Group Average condition who recalled Highest group average) and compare them to ALL the people who were incorrect in their recall.
1. In this instance, you would not want the chi square to be significant. That is, you might conclude “There was no difference between those who got the manipulation check question correct across the three different conditions,
χ2(4) = 1.49,
p = .099.” (In other words, participants were equally correct in all conditions).
2. My advice is to go with the easy chi square (a. above)
iii. Quick notes
1. Cramer’s V is required for 3 X 3 designs. Here, we have 3 study conditions and 3 answer options, so 3 X 3. Only use Phi if you have a 2 X 2 study (two conditions and two answer options)
2. Make sure to italicize the
χ and
p
4.
The results section and the OneWay ANOVA
a. Since your condition independent variable has
three levels (e.g. Individual Total vs. Group Total vs. Group Average), the most appropriate test is a OneWay ANOVA if your DV is scaled (like a 0 to 10 scale or a 1 to 7 scale). Your lab and lecture powerpoints show you how to conduct an ANOVA, but here are some guidelines I want to give you about how to write your results. Below I walk you through one analysis specific to this paper.
i. First, there are several dependent variables to choose from. For my example analysis below, I want to focus on Part Two in your survey (Total Math Score, or how many problems the participant completed out of 42). Since can solve between 0 to 42 problems (that is, each uses a least an interval scale) an ANOVA is the best statistical test to run.
ii. Second, given that this study has one IV with three levels and we will look at one DV at a time, a
OneWay ANOVA is the best test to use to see if there are significant differences among the three IV levels for that one DV. We look first at the ANOVA table (or
F table) and focus on the between subject factor. We note the degrees of freedom, the
F value itself, and the
p value. (We will get into factorial ANOVAs later in this course, but here we only have one independent variable, so we can use a OneWay ANOVA. Yes, we have three levels to our IV, but it is still only one IV).
iii. Third, if the
p value is significant (less than .05), we have one more step to take. Since our IV has three levels, we need to compare mean A to mean B, mean A to mean C, and mean B to mean C. We do this using a post hoc test (try using Tukey!). Tukey will tell us which of the means differ significantly. You then write up the results. For example, let’s say I ran an ANOVA on the dependent variable in Part Two: Total Math Score. My write up would look like the one below (though note: I completely made up the data below, so do not copy the numbers!) …
1.
Significant ANOVA:
a.
We ran a One Way ANOVA using Social Loafing condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total vs. Group Average) as our independent variable and Total Math Score as the dependent variable. We found a significant condition effect,
F(2, 203) = 4.32,
p = .032. Tukey post hoc tests showed that participants completed more math problems in the Individual Total condition (
M = 27.56,
SD = 1.21) than participants in both the Group Total (
M = 17.24,
SD = 0.89) and Group Average (
M = 18.23,
SD = 0.77) conditions. The Group Total and Group Average conditions, however, did not differ from each other. This supports our prediction that participants are less likely to engage in social loafing if their score is individually examined.
Note that the word “less” is very important here. Conditions do not simply differ. One is LESS than the others (or HIGHER, or LOWER, etc.)
i. Note there are lots of possible outcomes. The one above says that the Individual Total condition differed from Group Total and Group Average conditions, but that the two group conditions did not differ from each other (In other words, IT ≠ GT = GA). However, we might also find that none of the three conditions differ from each other (IT = GT = GA) or we might find that all conditions differ from each other (IT ≠ GT ≠ GA), so they all differ. Want to see an example of nonsignificance? Okay …
2.
NonSignificant ANOVA. Think about this for Part Three, Question 1, where we predicted that all participants believed they completed more math problems than average
a. We ran a One Way ANOVA using Social Loafing condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total vs. Group Average) as our independent variable and ratings of “I solved more math problems than the average participant” as the dependent variable. We failed to find a significant condition effect,
F(2, 203) = 2.32,
p = .232. Participant ratings did not differ between the Individual Total (
M = 3.45,
SD = 1.21), Group Total (
M = 3.24,
SD = 0.89) and Group Average (
M = 3.23,
SD = 0.77) conditions. This shows that regardless of condition, participants felt like they did not engage in social loafing.
iv. Fourth, make sure to italicize the
F,
p,
M, and
SD (as in the example)
b. Pretty simple, right! Again, I suggest using ANOVAs to look at Part Two (Total Math Score) and either Question 1 or Question 2 in Part Three (Performance Thoughts)
c. Note that you could also run a
tTest on any of these dependent variables, looking at the Individual Total versus Group Total conditions only, or IT versus Group Average, or GT versus GA. However, it makes more sense to look at all three conditions using an ANOVA this semester since you collected data for all three conditions. Still, let me give you some insight into the
tTest.
5.
The results section and the tTest:
a. If you have only two IV levels (e.g. Individual Total versus Group Total only), things are even more simple. However, I do NOT expect you to run a
tTest since you have three IV levels.
i. Note once again that a
tTest looks at differences between only two groups. Again, your lab presentations tell you how to run this, but you can do it on your own as well (you can even run a
tTest if your study originally has three levels to the IV – when you go into the
tTest menu in SPSS, simply click “define groups” and select 1 and 2 (Individual Total = 1 and Group Total = 2). This lets you look at two of the groups! You could also select “2 and 3” or “1 and 3” where the Group Average condition = 3).
ii. Rather than an
F value, there is a
t value in the
tTest data output. There is one number for the degree of freedom, a
t value, and a
p value.
iii. The nice thing about a
tTest is that because you only have two groups, you do not need a post hoc test like Tukey (you only need that if you need to compare three means. Here, we only have two means, so we can just look at them and see which is higher and which is lower when our
tTest is significant). Then just write it up …
1.
Significant
tTest
: We ran an independent samples
tTest using Social Loafing condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total) as our independent variable and Total Math Score as the dependent variable. We found a significant condition effect,
t(203) = 7.12,
p = .021. Participants completed more math problems in the Individual Total condition (
M = 27.56,
SD = 1.21) than in the Group Total condition (
M = 18.23,
SD = 0.77).
a. A quick note here. Look at the means for this
tTest example and the ANOVA example for the significant ANOVA on page 10. The means and
SDs are identical. That is because the
tTest and ANOVA both look at the means for the Individual Total and Group Total conditions for the same dependent variable. That is why you cannot run a
tTest and ANOVA on the same DV, as it is essentially the same statistical analysis.
2.
Nonsignificant
tTest
: We ran an independent samples
tTest using Social Loafing condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total) as our independent variable and Total Math Score as the dependent variable. We failed to find a significant condition effect,
t(203) = 1.12,
p = .128. Participants solved a similar number of math problems in the Individual Total condition (
M = 24.23,
SD = 0.21) and the Group Total condition (
M = 24.34,
SD = 0.89).”
iv. Repeat for other dependent variables
v. Make sure to italicize the
t,
p,
M , and
SD (as in the example)
6.
Statistics order recommendation for the results section
a. For this paper, start your results section with the chi square (your manipulation check). After all, if your manipulation check shows participants did not pay attention, then there is no need to run any other analyses! Then talk about your main analyses (The Total Math Score variable from Part Two and Question 1 or 2 from Part Three). Make sure the analyses line up with your hypotheses.
b. There is no page minimum or maximum for the results section, though I would expect it to be at least a paragraph for
each dependent variable analysis.
Tables (4 points)
1.
Tables overview: I want to make sure you are including the correct numbers in your results section, so I want you to include all relevant SPSS tables for each of your analyses.
a. Table 1 (Demographics): Include tables for age, gender, and ethnicity.
b. Table 2 (Chi square): Include tables for your chi square and the crosstabs
c. Table 3 (ANOVA): Include your tables for your first dependent variable (This must be an ANOVA table, the descriptive statistics table for that ANOVA, and the post hoc test)
d. Table 4 (ANOVA or
tTest): Include your tables for you second dependent variable (If it is a
tTest, include
tTest tables here. This would involve both the descriptives for the
tTest and the
tTest output itself. Again, I prefer that your second analysis also be an ANOVA and NOT a
tTest)
e. Table 5 and beyond (If applicable): Not required, but feel free to run additional statistics if you like and add Table 5 or more!
2.
Tables Placement:
a. Although the 7th Edition of the APA Publication manual allows you to place your tables at either the end of the manuscript (in a series of appendices) or embed them within the text itself, we require the latter placement option. That is, include your table(s) immediately after your table callout.
i. Participant tables: Include your participant tables (for age, gender, and ethnicity) immediately after the participant section (and before the methods / procedure section).
ii. Chi square tables: You will include your chi square tables (including the crosstabulation table, chi square table, and symmetric measures table) right after the callout.
iii. ANOVA tables: For the ANOVA, once again use a table callout. Then copy the ANOVA tables (descriptive statistics, ANOVA table, and post hoc tables) from SPSS and paste them immediately after the callout.
b. See the example paper for a visual aide.
3.
How to copy table content:
a. The best way to get tables is to copy them directly from SPSS. In the SPSS output, right click on the table, copy it, and then paste it into your paper after the callout. (If you double click the table in SPSS, you can adjust the width of cells or even delete some of the columns).
b. Another alternative is to use a “snipping” tool (search “snipping tool” in Microsoft Word to find it). You can highlight an area on any computer page and save it as a picture. Copy the picture and paste it into your table pages. Easy!
4.
Table formatting
a. Make sure to give a proper name to each table (e.g.
Table 1) followed by a good description of what is in the table in italics (e.g.
Study One Demographics)
b. Each table is flush left, as is the title. See the example paper for a visual aide
c. I am not worried if your table spills over onto multiple lines. If it spills over, that is fine. I just need to see the full table and the numbers need to be readable
Discussion Study One (2 points)
1.
Discussion overview
a. In this section, tell me about your results and if they did or did not support your predictions. It will help to refer back to your hypotheses “We expected to find A, but instead we found B” or “We predicted A, and results supported this hypothesis.” Explain using plain English why you think your study turned out the way it did. Avoid just copying and pasting the hypotheses from your literature review. Give me the gist of your predictions to avoid being overly repetitive
b. IMPORTANT – Do NOT give me statistics here. I can find those in your results section. Here, all I want is a plain English summary of your findings.
c. Also, do not give me results for a DV if you did not run an analysis on that DV. Only tell me about the results you actually looked at in the results section.
d. There is no length requirement for this section, but I recommend at least four or five sentences
Writing Quality (3 points)
1.
Writing quality overview
a. Make sure you check your paper for proper spelling and grammar. The FIU writing center is available if you want someone to look over your paper (an extra eye is always good!) and give you advice. I highly recommend them, as writing quality will become even more important on future papers. I also recommend visiting the FIU Research Methods Help Center if you need additional guidance with writing or statistical analyses. Also, remember to upload this paper through the Pearson writer before uploading to Canvas!
i. Use a spell checker and the grammar checker to prevent errors. Proofread everything you write. I actually recommend reading some sentences aloud to see if they flow well, or getting family or friends to read your work.
b. Make sure to use the past tense throughout your paper. You already did the study, so do not tell me what participants are going to do. Tell me what they already did!
Other Helpful Hints
1.
Page size: Use 8 1/2 X 11” with all 4 margins should be one inch. You
must use a 12point font in Times New Roman.
2.
Supporting documents: Make sure to look at the supporting documents for this paper. Like Paper I, there is a checklist, a grade rubric, and an example paper for Paper II. (Definitely use the Paper II Checklist before you turn in your paper to make sure it is the best paper you can write!, but all will give you more information about what we are specifically looking for as well as a visual example of how to put it all together in your paper). Good luck!
Paper II Grade Rubric
Criteria
Ratings
Title Page Criteria
(1 point)
1. Header (in ALL CAPS)
2. Page number
3. Descriptive Title (in
bold)
4. Your Name
5. Your University
6. Perfect APA formatting
Meets all criteria
1 point
Does not meet all criteria
0 point
Methods Section Criteria
(15 points)
1. Includes section titles in proper APA format
2. Provides participant data (demographics) accurately and thoroughly in APA format
3. Provides demographic table callout
4. Discusses consent
5. Describes the formatting of the material (e.g. Paper Survey, Online Survey, etc.)
6. Describes participant selection
7. Describes the independent variable(s) in detail so a reader could replicate your study design
8. Describes the dependent variable(s) in similar detail, including they type of scale used and scale endpoints
9. Describes the procedure in detail
10. Avoids repetitiveness.
Meets all criteria
15 points
Mets at least 8 criteria
10 to 14 points
Meets at least 6 criteria
5 to 9 points
Meets at least 4 criteria
1 to 4 points
Meets 0 to 3 criteria
0
points
Results Section Criteria
(10 points)
1. Provides three statistical analyses (minimum) on three different dependent variables
2. Includes independent and dependent variable names for each analysis consistent with the same names used in the methods section
3. Provides statistical outcomes in proper APA formatting (
italics for letters, rounding to two decimals, etc.)
4. Provides all relevant numbers for each analysis (e.g. percentages for the chi square; means and SDs for each condition in the independent variable)
5. Analyzes hypothesesrelevant variables
Meets all criteria
10 points
Meets at least 4 criteria
7 to 9 points
Meets at least 3 criteria
4 to 6 points
Meets at least 2 criteria
1 to 3 points
Meets 0 to 1 criteria
0
points
Discussion Section Criteria
(2 point)
1. Reviews the hypothesis
2. Compares the findings to the hypotheses
3. Avoids statistical numbers
Meets all criteria
2 points
Meets 2 criteria
1 point
Meets 0 to 1 criteria
0 point
Tables Criteria (4 point)
1. Includes all four tables with callouts intext
2. Demographics table (the descriptives table for age and frequency tables for gender and race)
3. Chi square table (with crosstab table and chi square table)
4. One ANOVA tables (with descriptives, ANOVA table, and post hoc table as needed)
5. One additional ANOVA table
or one
tTest table (with descriptive table and tTable)
Meets all criteria
4 points
Meets 3 criteria
2 to 3 points
Meets 2 criteria
1 to 2 points
Meets 0 to 1 criteria
0 points
Writing Quality Criteria
(3 points)
1. Uses proper spelling and punctuation
2. Has good transition between sentences
3. Includes good detail that informs the reader about important information in each paper section
4. Avoids plagiarism
Meets
all criteria
3 points
Meets 2 to 3 criteria
2 points
Meets 0 to 1 criteria
0 to 1 points
1
HOW SINCERITY AFFECTS FORGIVENESS
To Forgive, or Not to Forgive: How the Sincerity of Apologies Online Affect Forgiveness
Jane Doe
Florida International University
Methods
Participants
The following study consisted of 141 randomly assigned participants. Of these participants, 44.7% (
n = 63) were male and 55.3% (
n = 78) were female. Participant age ranged from 17 to 50 years old with the average participant age being
M = 24.60 (
SD = 7.92). This sample included 50.4% Hispanic American (
n = 71), 28.4% Caucasian (
n = 40), 10.6% African American (
n = 15), 4.3% Asian American (
n = 6), 1.4% Native Indian (
n = 2), and 5% participants that classified themselves as “Other” (
n = 7). See Table 1.
Table 1
Demographics for Study One
.
Materials and Procedure
Before distributing the questionnaires, 141 participants were contacted and asked for informed verbal consent to participate in the research study and advised that there were no risks in participating. If the participant granted oral consent to participate, they were subsequently given one of three documents that contained a screenshot of a Twitter page and fourpart questionnaire. Part one of the document included a Twitter page for a user named Charlie Webb. The profile of Charlie’s Twitter page was identical in all documents, including a generic header, profile picture, and “bio” (biography), as well as usual items such as the search bar, trending hashtags, and “follow” recommendations. Most importantly, it consisted of an initial three “tweets” (posts) in which the user Charlie Webb described an incident that occurred at the mall during the COVID19 pandemic. They said they were not wearing a face mask and defied the norm of social distancing by invading an employee’s space, leading to an argument with the mall employee. However, the following two tweets after the description of the transgression differed between conditions. In the “Sincere” condition, Charlie apologizes for their actions, acknowledges being wrong, accepts responsibility, and accepts their punishment. They follow this statement with the hashtag “#SorrySorrySorry”. In the “Insincere” condition, Charlie apologized similarly to the sincere condition, but ends the tweet with “Ha! #SorryNotSorry”. Lastly, the third condition which is “No” apology states simply suggests leaving the incident in the past and ends with the hashtag “#WhatsDoneIsDone”.
In part two of the study, participants were asked to rate their impression of Charlie on the basis of what they read from the Twitter page provided to them in part one, without looking back to it. The ratings were measured on an interval Likert scale, ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 6 (Strongly Agree) on statements such as Charlie acknowledging wrongfulness, accepting responsibility, expressing remorse, offering compensation, assuring not to behave in that manner again, whether the apology seemed forced, if the apology seemed sincere, and whether the participant themselves would accept the apology. In part three of the study, participants were offered to rate more statements on the same Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree) as part two judging Charlie’s behavior, such as if it was wrong, understandable, and forgivable, as well as their perceptions of Charlie as being regretful, selfish, moral, and rude. Lastly, participants rated how much they agree with the statement: “I don’t think people should be forced to wear a mask at stores if they don’t want to wear it”. For this study, only two dependent variables were analyzed from the sixteen ratings measured.
In part four of the study, participants were asked to fill out demographic questions, but were advised that it was not necessary to answer if uncomfortable with doing so. The demographic questions included the participants’ providing their gender, age, race/ethnicity, whether English is their first language, and if not, to write in their first language, whether they are a student at Florida International University, and their relationship status. In closing, part five concluded the document with a nominal measurement for attention in which the participants were asked to recall whether the hashtag they saw in the Twitter page previously shown was: “#SorrySorrySorry”, “#SorryNotSorry”, or “#WhatsDoneIsDone”.
After participants completed the questionnaire, they were debriefed regarding the purpose of the study being perception of sincerity within apologies, the manipulation of apologies in all conditions, and the predictions for the study. Analyses were conducted on the attention check of the hashtags and whether participants perceived Charlie’s apology as sincere and if they showed acceptance of responsibility (ratings from part two).
Results Study One
First, a chi square test of independence was conducted using apology condition as our independent variable (sincere, insincere, or no apology). The dependent variable is recall of the hashtag at the end of Charlie’s thread of tweets, in order to determine if participants recalled the condition they were exposed to. The chi square was significant,
X2(4) = 121.93,
p < .001. Most “Sincere” condition participants recalled #SorrySorrySorry (87.2%); most “Insincere” condition recalled participants #SorryNotSorry (74.5%); and most “No apology” condition participants recalled #WhatsDoneIsDone (68.1%). Cramer’s v was strong. These results serve to confirm that our participants viewed the manipulation as intended. See Table 2.
Table 2
Crosstabs and Chi Square – Study One
Using apology condition (sincere, insincere, or no apology) as the independent variable and participants’ agreement with “Charlie’s apology showed an acceptance of responsibility” as the dependent variable, a oneway ANOVA revealed differences among participants. A significant relationship emerged,
F(2, 138) = 8.82,
p < .001. A Tukey post hoc test revealed that participants in the sincere condition (
M = 4.79,
SD = 0.69) agreed more with the statement than both the participants in the insincere (
M = 4.17,
SD = 0.73) and no apology (
M = 4.36,
SD = 0.76) condition. However, the insincere and no apology conditions did not differ in agreement with the responsibility statement. See Table 3.
Table 3
Responsibility ANOVA
A second OneWay ANOVA analysis was conducted with apology condition as the independent variable (sincere, insincere, or no apology) and rate of agreement with the statement “Charlie’s apology seemed sincere” as the dependent variable. A significant relationship emerged,
F(2, 138) = 11.90,
p < .001. A Tukey post hoc test revealed that participants in the sincere condition (
M = 4.34,
SD = 0.87) agreed with sincerity statement more than both the insincere (
M = 3.38,
SD = 1.13) and no apology condition (
M = 3.87,
SD = 0.82), with the no apology condition agreeing with the statement more than the insincere condition. See Table 4.
Table 4
Sincerity ANOVA
Discussion Study One
We predicted that the participants would be aware of the apology manipulation in all three conditions, which was supported by the results in the chi square test of independence. We also predicted that participants in the sincere apology condition would view the apology, and the apologizer, more favorably in terms of agreeing with statements that Charlie accepted responsibility and was sincere, than participants in both the insincere and no apology conditions. However, participants in the insincere condition would view the apology less favorably than those in the no apology condition. The sincerity ANOVA analysis supported the hypothesis, with sincere participants agreeing with Charlie’s apology seeming sincere, more so than the participants in the insincere and no apology condition. On the other hand, while the responsibility ANOVA analysis showed that participants in the sincere condition agreed with the statement that Charlie’s apology accepted responsibility more than participants in both the insincere and no apology conditions, the insincere and no apology conditions viewed the apology equally. While the results showed statistically significant differences, the average rating in the sincere condition leaned more towards agreeing rather than strongly agreeing. Based on the literature, these findings were expected considering how the dependent variables shown, acceptance of responsibility and sincerity, influence the perception of an apology as well as the chances of being forgiven. Perhaps in the responsibility variable, the lack of an apology seemed just as unsympathetic as an insincere attempt of an apology, leading to the results found.
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COUNTERFACTUAL THINKING
1
4
COUNTERFACTUAL THINKING: APPOINTING BLAME
12
COUNTERFACTUAL THINKING
Comment by Ryan Winter: Note the running head up here. The correct APA format includes a shortened title in ALL CAPS.
Your header title should be no more than 50 characters.
This title page also starts on page one, and you can see the page number is flush to the right side of the page while the running head is flush to the left Comment by Ryan Winter: Do you know how to enter a header? Click on the “Insert” menu at the top of word, click on “Header”, and then type in the header whatever you want. Alternatively, click anywhere on the top of the page and it will open the header
Counterfactual Thinking: Impressions of Blame in a Seemingly Avoidable Car Accident Comment by Ryan Winter: Note the title here as well. It is descriptive of the paper to come, and doesn’t include any abbreviations or unneeded words. The first letter of all words over 4 letters is capitalized, as is the first word after the colon if it less than 4 letters. “Counterfactual Thinking: An Analysis of the Phenomenon” would thus be correct as well. Make sure the title is in bold text
The title should be placed three or four lines below the top margin of the paper.
An extra two spaces go between the title and your name (Here, just named “
Former Student
”).
Former Student
Florida International University
Comment by Ryan Winter: The good news is that this example paper is on the same topic as the example paper from Paper I. I’m going to show you the progress of the paper throughout the semester, so you can see how you will eventually combine Papers I, II, III, and IV into Paper V. Let’s continue looking at counterfactual thinking!
But again, this is an EXAMPLE paper. The topic here (counterfactual thinking) differs from your study. Do NOT discuss counterfactuals or any of the variables in this example in your paper unless they are relevant to your own topic.
Methods Comment by Ryan Winter: The word Method here is centered and bolded, as is recommended by the APA
Participants Comment by Ryan Winter: Participant (also bolded) is flush left
One hundred and twenty six students from Florida International University were selected to participate in our study. Of these 126 participants, 37% (
n = 47) were male and 63% (
n = 79) were female. Ages ranged from a minimum of 17 to a maximum of 58 with an average of 22.32 years (
SD = 6.30). The sample population consisted of 68.3% Hispanic Americans (
n = 86), 8.7% African Americans (
n = 11), 19% Caucasians (
n = 24), 1.6% Asians (
n = 2), and 2.4% who did not specify their ethnicity (
n = 3). See Table 1. Comment by Ryan Winter: When a number starts a sentence, spell out the number Comment by Ryan Winter: Note the mean and standard deviation here, which is helpful for knowing about the makeup of the sample. The mean, of course, is the average Comment by Ryan Winter: Make sure to have a callout (“Table 1”) followed immediately by the table. You can group all demographics into the same table (Include the “Statistics”, “Gender”, and “Ethnicity” tables all under the general “Table 1” phrase)
Table 1 Comment by Ryan Winter: You will have at least four tables for Study One. Label them in terms of table number (and make sure to provide a callout for the table in the results section). Tables are numbered sequentially, with the word Table flush left and in bold.
Demographics – Study One Comment by Ryan Winter: The table title is right above the table itself. It is flush left and is in italics. For Table 1, include all of your demographics (the statistics table, the gender table, and the ethnicity table). Note: We do not need to see the age table, which focuses on the age frequencies. It is better to use the mean age in the statistics table (rather than the age frequency in the age table).
Make sure each table is flush left
Comment by Ryan Winter: To add tables, simply go into your SPSS output. You can rightclick on the table and then copy it. Then just paste it into your table page!
Alternatively, you can use the “Snipping tool” function available on most computers. (Do a search for it!). This allows you to draw a virtual box around text and then copy it like a picture. Then just paste the picture into the table page
Finally, your last option is to do the work by hand. Insert a table with rows and columns and transfer over the information. This is the hard way, though. Both of the options above took me less than a minute. Recreating a table manually will take a much longer time!
Materials and Procedure Comment by Ryan Winter: Also bolded and flush left. You will notice that this author combined materials and procedures, which was good for this simple study. She could have separated them, though, and talked about the taxi scenario and questionnaires in a “materials” section and the procedure separately in the “procedure” section. I like this combined choice, though, for this design.
In accordance with the standardized guidelines for informed consent, prospective participants were notified of the potential risks and benefits of participating in the study before being introduced to the research material. If the student verbally agreed to participate, he or she was given one of three different documents, each of which consisted of five parts or sections.
In Part One, the participant read a short scenario concerning a paraplegic couple, Tina and Eugene, who requested a taxi for a night out with friends. Each of the three documents depicted the same initial situation with alternate conditions (changeable, unchangeable, or neutral). Comment by Ryan Winter: Noting the IV helps a lot. You can tell the author knows what his IV is. There is only one, with three levels
In the changeable condition, the taxi driver arrived to pick up the couple, only to promptly decline their fare upon seeing that they were both paraplegic. Without enough time to call for another taxi, Tina and Eugene decided to take Tina’s car, which was handicap equipped. In order to reach their destination, they had to cross a bridge that had been weakened the night before due to a severe storm. The damaged bridge collapsed mere minutes before the couple reached it. Unable to see the missing portion of the bridge in the night, Tina and Eugene drove off the road, into the river below, and drowned. The taxi driver, who had left 15 minutes earlier, managed to make it safely across, before the collapse. In the unchangeable condition, the situation remained mostly the same with the exception that the taxi driver arrived at the bridge after it had collapsed and plummeted into the water as well. He managed to make it out of the car and swim to safety, but Tina and Eugene drowned. In the neutral condition, the taxi arrived to pick up the couple but promptly refused their fare as soon as he realized that they were both paraplegic. In this condition, the taxi driver did eventually agree to take Tina and Eugene to their destination downtown, albeit after much argument. Due to the recently collapsed bridge, the taxi driver drove his passengers and himself off the road and into the river below. He barely managed to make it out of the car before drowning. Tina and Eugene’s outcome remained the same. Comment by Ryan Winter: Notice how thorough the description of the scenario is here. If you wanted to replicate this study, you would know exactly what to do because the author tells you exactly what she did. Make sure the description of your IV is equally clear.
After reading one of the scenarios described above, the participant continued on to the remainder of the study, which was composed of a series of open, partially open, and closeended questions.
In Part Two, the participants was asked to provide as many ‘If Only’ statements as they could that would essentially “undo” the accident. That is, they were asked to list all the factors they could think of that could have possibly changed the outcome of the event. This question was openended, and participants had a blank page where they were encouraged to write down as many “If only” statements as they liked. This could range from zero to as many as they could imagine, though no participant wrote down more than ten statements, giving us a ratio scale that ranged from 0 to 10 statements. An example statement that frequently occurred was, “The accident could have been avoided if only the taxi driver had agreed to drive the couple.” We did not content analyze these statements, but rather counted the number of statements participants provided.
In Part Three, the participant was presented with a series of questions about their thoughts regarding the specific situation they read about. After reading each question, the participant was asked to record his or her response in a scale of one to nine, though the descriptors for each question differed depending on the question prompt. These questions included, “How avoidable do you think the accident was (1 = not at all avoidable, 9 = very avoidable)?”, “How causal was the role of the taxi driver in the couple’s death (1 = not at all causal, 9 = the most important cause)”?, “How much control do you think the taxi driver had (1 = no control, 9 = complete control)?”, “How negligent was the taxi driver (1 = not at all negligent, 9 = completely negligent)?”, “How much money for damages should the taxi driver be responsible for (1 = no money, 9 = as much as possible)?”, “How foreseeable was the couple’s death (1 = not at all foreseeable, 9 = completely foreseeable)?”, “How guilty should the taxi driver feel about the accident (1 = no guilt at all, 9 = as much guilt as possible)”, and “How much blame does the taxi driver deserve for the accident (1 = no blame at all, 9 = total blame)?” Remaining questions focused on a series of statements about the taxi drive, all rated on scales ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 9 (Strongly Agree). These statements included, “The taxi driver was reckless”, “The taxi driver was patient”, “The taxi driver was careful”, and “The taxi driver was hasty”. Comment by Ryan Winter: You know exactly what the DVs are here, and you know the range for each scale. This is VERY important. If you tell me the scale was 1 to 9 but that is it, I won’t know if 1 is a good score or a bad score. Does 9 mean they could avoid it or they could not avoid it? I need to see both the scale AND the labels for the DV to make sense Comment by Ryan Winter: Since these las four questions all use the same 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 9 (Strongly Agree) scale, the student only provide the scale once. It gets repetitive if you add the same scale after each question.
Part Four asked for the participant’s demographic information, including gender, age, ethnicity, their first language, and whether they were a student at Florida International University. Concluding the study, the participant was debriefed on his or her contribution to the study as well as our insights on counterfactual thinking and our main hypothesis. Comment by Ryan Winter: You can see her procedure, right! Very clear, very stepbystep
Finally, in Part Five we asked “Did the taxi driver agree to drive the couple?” The answer options were yes or no, or a nominal response. This final question served as an attention check, which informed us if the participant was attentive to the study and allowed us to exclude potentially misrepresentative responses from our data.
Although we had several dependent variables, our primary analyses focuses on the perceived blameworthiness of the taxi driver, the number of ‘If Only’ statements the participants could create, and the manipulation check regarding whether the driver agreed to take the couple. As such, these are the only three dependent variables that we analyzed.
Results Comment by Ryan Winter: Results is centered and bold. The results section comes right after the methods – there is no page break
Using survey condition (changeable vs. unchangeable vs. neutral) as our independent variable and whether participants recalled whether the taxi driver picked up the paraplegic couple as the dependent variable, we ran a manipulation check in which we saw a significant effect,
X2(2) = 93.95,
p < .001. Participants in the changeable and unchangeable conditions correctly said the taxi did not pick up the couple (95.2% and 90.5%, respectively). Most participants in the neutral condition said the driver did pick up the couple (95.2%). Cramer’s V, which is most appropriate for a 3 X 2 chi square, showed a large effect. This indicates that participants did pay attention to whether the taxi driver picked up the couple. See Table 2. Comment by Ryan Winter [2]: If SPSS says the sig value is .000, then use p < .001. Otherwise, use the exact p value (e.g. p = .002) Comment by Ryan Winter: The chi square here is useful for data that is nominal in nature (that is, there is no numerical difference between factors). Here, they either read about a taxi picking up the couple or they didn’t. We cannot look at a mean or average value here (what is the average between yes and no?), so the chi square looks at the number of people who say yes and the number who say no. Here, we want the participants in some conditions to say yes (if the taxi picked up the couple) and no (if he didn’t pick them up) Comment by Ryan Winter: Add in the callout “Table 2” and then add the table immediately after the callout
Table 2
Crosstabs and Chi Square – Study One
For our main analysis, our first OneWay ANOVA test revealed a significant difference between our independent variable, the scenario conditions (changeable, unchangeable, or neutral) and our dependent variable, “How much blame does the taxi driver deserve for the accident”,
F(2, 122) = 3.55,
p = .032 A subsequent Tukey post hoc test supported our hypothesis by demonstrating that participants were more likely to blame the taxi driver in the changeable condition (
M = 4.51,
SD = 2.06) than in the unchangeable condition (
M = 3.38,
SD = 2.14).. However, there were no significant difference for perceived blame between the neutral condition (
M = 4.36,
SD = 2.11) and either the changeable or unchangeable conditions. These results indicate that in situations where the outcome is perceived as mutable (changeable), individuals are more likely to assign blame to the actor who
could have
acted differently (unchangeable). See Table 3. Comment by Ryan Winter: A One Way ANOVA is appropriate here since there are three levels to the single IV and the DV is on an interval scale (it ranges from 1 to 9) Comment by Ryan Winter: As you can see, this student did find significance, so she ran post hoc tests on the ANOVA using Tukey. But what if there was no significance,? Well, look what happens in the next ANOVA!
Comment by Ryan Winter: Again, have the callout (Table 3) followed by the actual Table 3
Table 3
ANOVA Blame – Study One
Comment by Ryan Winter: Make sure to give a good description of YOUR dependent variable. In this paper, she looked at blame as a DV, so she put that word here. Use YOUR dependent variable in the description Comment by Ryan Winter: The SPSS output in Table 3 is from a One Way ANOVA. Note that you can also run a “Univariate Analysis of Variance” in SPSS and get the same results, though the tables will look a little different (the Univariate ANOVA includes additional numbers, but the df, F, and p value will be the same as those in this One Way ANOVA table. You can run either analysis, but the data in this example paper focuses on the One Way ANOVA output.
We were also interested in the number of ‘If Only’ statements participants generated for each condition. We ran a OneWay ANOVA using the condition (changeable, unchangeable, or neutral) as our independent variable and the number of counterfactuals participants produced as our dependent variable. The relationship between condition and number of ‘If Only’ statements generated was not significant,
F(2, 123) = 1.79,
p = .171. Our initial was not supported since the number of counterfactuals generated in the changeable condition (
M = 5.41,
SD = 2.21), the unchangeable condition (
M = 4.57,
SD = 2.04), and the neutral condition (
M = 4.88,
SD = 1.85) did not differ. Since the
pvalue for the ANOVA test was not significant, there was no need to run post hoc tests. See Table 4. Comment by Ryan Winter: So this student ran a second ANOVA, which I think is best. But since the dependent variable used here was scaled (confidence, which is on a 1 to 9 scale), the student could have just as easily run a tTest focusing on only two levels of the IV. Let me show you what that might look like.
“We ran a tTest looking only at the changeable and unchangeable conditions as our independent variable and number of If Only statements generated as our dependent variable. The tTest was not significant, t(72) = 1.76, p = .171. Participants did not generate any more counterfactuals in the changeable condition (M = 5.56, SD = 2.76) than in the unchangeable condition (M = 4.36, SD = 2.06).”
I could do something similar comparing the changeable and neutral conditions with a tTest or comparing the neutral and unchangeable conditions, but running three tTests is a lot. Much easier to do it with one ANOVA, which looks at all three comparisons at the same time! Comment by Ryan Winter [2]: Use exact p values, like p = .171. Only use p < .001 if SPSS says the sig value is .000 Comment by Ryan Winter: Even though the ANOVA was not significant, I’d still like you to provide the means and standard deviations for the analysis
Table 4
ANOVA Number of Counterfactuals – Study One
Finally, we ran an independent samples
tTest with the changeable and unchangeable conditions only and “How avoidable was the accident” as the dependent variable, which was significant,
t(82) = 2.71,
p = .008. Participants thought the accident was more avoidable in the changeable condition (
M = 5.31,
SD = 1.77) than in the unchangeable condition (
M = 4.21,
SD = 1.85). See Table 5.
Table 5
tTest “Was the accident avoidable?” – Study One Comment by Ryan Winter: Note that you may not run a tTest in your study. If you do, make sure to include both the group statistics and the independent samples tTest tables! Comment by Ryan Winter: If your tTable goes onto multiple lines, that is okay. This student just deleted a few columns from the tTest to make it fit the page, but if your tTable goes over into other rows, that is okay.
Discussion Comment by Ryan Winter: Your discussion does not need to be extensive, but I do want you to note whether you supported or did not support your hypothesis and provide some possible reasons for your findings. You can make some educated guesses about what might be going on, but make them reasonable!
We predicted that participants would place more blame on an actor whose behavior led to an undesirable outcome (death) when that actor could have acted differently primarily because these participants would generate more “If Only” counterfactual statements that would lead them to see the outcome could have been avoided. Conversely, we predicted that participants who read about an undesirable outcome that could not have been avoided would assign less blame to the actor and would think of fewer counterfactual “If Only” statements. Results partially supported these predictions, as we did find more blame for in the changeable condition compared to the unchangeable (though neither differed from the neutral condition), and they thought the accident was more avoidable in the changeable condition than in the unchangeable condition. However, the number of counterfactual statements that participants generated did not differ among our three conditions. It could be that participants were unfamiliar with the counterfactual task, which requires some deep thinking, though on a more unconscious level they could have seen the changeable condition as evidencing more elements of blame. This begs the question: what if participants were forced to think deeper? This is the focus of our second study. Comment by Ryan Winter: This question here is actually a leadin to the student’s next study. Your own methods, results, and discussion paper can end here, but keep in mind that your final paper is only halfway done right now! In your future papers, you will help design a followup study to your first study, so as you write this paper try to think about what you would do differently and what you might add in a followup study.
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There are several documents in this folder. If you are curious about exactly what you need to do for your assignment points, download and read the “What is Due” instructions below.
What is Due – Assignment #4 Instructions (Download)
Research Study Survey Materials and Instructions: Make sure to read the Researcher Instructions below before you collect data from your three participants. It walks you through what you need to do as a researcher and explains the variables used in your study. The instructions also include information about your study predictions. Then, download and print out the three “Main Questionnaires” and have participants complete them
Researcher Instructions – Social Loafing Study (Download)
Main Questionnaire – Individual Total Condition (Download and Print)
Main Questionnaire – Group Total Condition (Download and Print)
Main Questionnaire – Group Average Condition (Download and Print)
When you upload your “assignment”, you will upload an SPSS file (it has a .sav tag at the end). Keep that in mind!
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
STUDY ONE METHODS, RESULTS DISCUSSION INSTRUCTIONS 1
STUDY ONE METHODS, RESULTS DISCUSSION INSTRUCTIONS 1
Instructions for Paper II: Study One Methods, Results, and Discussion (Worth 35 Points)
Ryan J. Winter
Florida International University
Paper II: Table of Contents
Item
Page #
Title Page
1
Table of Contents
2
Purposes of Paper II – Study One Methods, Results and Discussion
3
1. The psychological purpose (Paper overview)
3
2. The APA formatting purpose
3
3. The writing purpose
3
Notes About Paper I – Study One Literature Review
4
The Title Page (1 point)
5
The Abstract (Not needed for this paper)
5
The Methods Section (15 points)
5
1. Formatting the methods section
5
2. The participant section
5
3. The materials and procedure section
6
The Results Section (10 points)
7
1. Formatting the results section
7
2. The results section content requirements
8
3. The results section and the chi square
8
4. The results section and the OneWay ANOVA
9
5. The results section and the
tTest
11
6. Statistics order recommendation for the results section
12
Tables (4 points)
12
1. Tables overview
12
2. Tables placement
12
3. How to copy table content
13
4. Table formatting
13
Discussion Study One (2 points)
13
Writing Quality (3 points)
1
4
Other Helpful Hints
14
Paper II Grade Rubric
1
5
Purposes of Paper II: Study One Methods, Results, and Discussion
1.
The psychological purpose (Paper overview)
The psychological purpose behind Paper II is to make sure you can tell your reader what you did in your study, how you did it, and what you found. By now you have read several empirical studies in psychology, and you should be familiar with the Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. Now is your chance to write your own Methods, Results and Discussion!
Like the studies you looked at for Paper I, you will provide information about
your participants, materials, and procedure in your Methods section. Your participant section goes first, and it includes descriptive statistics about your sample (means and standard deviations for age as well as percentages for gender and race/ethnicity). Your materials and procedure sections include information about what you did and how you did it.
You should write this section for an audience who is unfamiliar with your specific study, but assume that they do know research methods. Thus educate your reader about your materials and procedure, giving enough detail so they could replicate the study. This includes explicitly describing your independent and dependent variables and talking about how you presented those variables to your participants. My suggestion is to look over the articles that you summarized in Paper I and see how they wrote their Methods. This will give you a good idea regarding the level of depth and detail you need in your own Methods section.
Your Results section follows. The purpose of this section is to make sure you can show how you analyzed the data and describe what you found. You will have a lot of help in this section from your lab materials (especially your lab powerpoint presentations).
Finally, I want you to include a short discussion of your findings. Tell me if you supported or did not support your hypotheses and explain why you got those results (you can actually speculate here if you like, but make it “educated” speculation!)
2.
The APA formatting purpose
The second purpose of Paper II: Methods, Results and Discussion is to once again teach you proper American Psychological Association (APA) formatting for these sections. In the pages below, I will tell you how to format your paper using APA style. There are a lot of very specific requirements in APA papers (as specific as what to italicize), so pay attention to the instructions below as well as the APA formatting lecture presentation!
3.
The writing purpose
Finally, this paper is intended to help you figure out how to write a Methods, Results, and Discussion section. Many students find statistics intimidating, but my hope here is that writing this paper will help you understand both the logic and format of statistics in results sections. We will once again give you a lot of feedback and help in this paper, which will be able to revise for your Papers IV and V later in the course. Make sure that you write this for an audience familiar with APA methods and results, but also for someone who needs you to tell them what you found.
Notes About Paper II – Study One Methods, Results, and Discussion
Note #1: The plagiarism limit is higher in this paper (up to 65%) since your classmates are doing the same design. Do not go higher than that, though! 65% is the maximum allowed!
Note #2: You do NOT need to include your literature review / hypotheses in Paper II, as Paper II focuses just on your methods, results, and discussion. However, you will include those Paper I components later in Paper III, so do keep them handy!
Note #3: Again, sorry for the length of the instructions! They are long, but take it one section at a time and you will get all of the content you need for your paper. It also increases your chances of getting a great grade!
Instructions for Paper II: Study One Methods, Results, and Discussion (Worth 35 Points)
The Title Page (1 point)
The title page for your Paper II is identical to the one you used for Paper I: Literature Review Study One. For proper APA formatting, either copy your title page from Paper I or review the title page instructions I gave you in Paper I. You can change your title if you like, but make sure it describes your study (much like a title in PsycInfo describes what the authors did in their paper)
Abstract?
You DO NOT need an abstract for Paper II: Methods, Results, and Discussion (Study One). You cannot write it until you run both study one and two, so omit it for now
The Methods Section (15 points)
1.
Formatting the methods section (Page 2).
a. Write
Methods at the top of this page, make it bold, and center it
b.
For Paper II, the methods section will come on page 2. But in Paper Three in a few weeks, the methods will come immediately after the study one literature review.
2.
The participant section
a.
Formatting: The participants section comes next. The word
Participants is bolded and left justified.
b.
Your participants: Tell me who your participants were (college students, family members, friends?) and how many there were.
i.
Numbers versus Letters
1. If a number starts a sentence, then spell out the number. That is, “Twohundred and five participants participated in this study.”
2. If a number is midsentence, you can use numerals. “There were 205 participants in this study.”
3. Keep numbers consistent. If you spell out a number at the start of the sentence, carry it through and spell out all numbers in that sentence.
ii. For statistics:
1. Always use numbers (
M = 5.43,
SD = 1.12, 67%, etc.)
2. Include a 0 before decimal places (
SD = 0.12, not
SD = .12), though a 0 is not needed in front of the
p value (
p = .003, not
p = 0.003)
3. For
p, always use the exact number (e.g.
p = .003 or
p = .34) unless your tabled value is .000. In that case, use
p < .001
iii. For scales, always use numbers (1 = Strongly Disagree to 6 = Strongly Agree)
c.
Frequencies and/or descriptive statistics for relevant demographics.
i. For some variables—like ethnicity and gender—you only need to provide frequency information (the number of participants who fit that category). “There were 100 men (49%) and 105 women (51%) in the study.” Or “The sample was 49% male (
n = 100) and 51% female (
n = 105).”
ii. Other variables—like age—are continuous (rather than categorical), so use descriptive statistics here (the range, mean, and the standard deviation). “Participants ranged in age from 18 to 77 (
M = 24.01,
SD = 3.50).” or “The average age of participants was 24.01 (
SD = 3.50).” You can find out how to get this information by reading the lab powerpoint and the crash course quiz documents
iii. Make sure to italicize the
n,
M, and
SD (the letters, not the numbers)
d.
Tables: Make sure to include a “callout” to the table. That is, write “See Table 1” at the end of the participant section to direct readers to your demographics table.
i. Note that the table comes immediately after the callout intext (not at the end of the paper or in an appendix).
3.
The materials and procedure section
a.
Formatting
: Include the phrase
Materials and Procedure in bold font. This title should be aligned on the left of the page.
i. There is no set minimum or maximum on the length of the methods section, but I expect
at least a page or two (but probably more. Your research script took up several pages – you should provide a similar level of depth and detail in your methods section). Missing important aspects of your IVs and DVs or presenting them in a confusing manner will lower your score.
ii. Make sure that another researcher can replicate your study based on your methods section. If they cannot do so, then you may not have enough detail!
b.
Content: Provide information about your materials and your procedure. I suggest starting with the procedure and discussing the materials in the order in which participants saw them. That is, tell your reader what your participants did in the order that participants did them.
Be specific here.
i. First, talk about the oral informed consent procedure.
ii. Second, talk about the three versions of the Social Loafing survey and the three “Social Loafing Conditions”: Individual Total, Group Total, or Group Average. Provide enough detail so that your readers know how the three conditions differ. Imagine I do not know what you did, but I need to able to replicate your design. YOU need to give me enough
detail so I can do so.
1. I want to stress this “detail” concept – Pretend that I have no idea what you did or what your materials look like, but I want to replicate your study. Thus, teach me your design and your procedures. Be VERY clear and detailed about what you did and how you did it so I can replicate your study design.
a. If there are advertisements in your survey, describe them. If there are pictures, describe them. If these items are identical across all conditions, note that fact.
2. Importantly, describe how the surveys differ. That is, you have three versions of the loafing survey. Describe how the three versions differ. Also make sure to describe how they are similar! (Hint: They are a lot more similar than they are different)
3. Note: At the end of the semester, someone other than your instructor / TA may grade your final paper. They may know NOTHING about Social Loafing, but they do know methods. Write this section for that methodology expert (but topic novice).
iii. Third, talk about your dependent variables (that is, your survey questions. For these dependent variables, once again provide enough detail so I know
exactly what questions you asked. For example, “Participants provided their gender, age, and race”. For other dependent variables, tell me how the responses were recorded (yes/no, true/false, a scale of 1 to 6, etc.). If you used a scale, note the endpoints and descriptors. For example, “Participants were asked, ‘How frustrating was this task?’, and they responded on a scale from 1 (very frustrating) to 6 (not at all frustrating).’”
1. If you only tell me that the scale was from 1 to 6, I won’t know if a 1 is a good score a bad score. Similarly, if you say the scale ranged from “very frustrating” to “not at all frustrating”, I won’t know if the number 1 relates to the “very” end of the scale or the “not at all” end. Thus, I need BOTH numbers and descriptors.
2. Your study has a few important DVs (including Total Math Score in Part Two as well as several of the “Performance Thoughts” in Part Three). For these DVs, tell me what they are
specifically!
iv. Fourth, make sure to highlight which specific DVs you analyzed. If there are DVs participants completed but you did not analyze it, feel free to say those that participants completed them but since they were not analyzed, they are not discussed further.
v. Fifth, make sure to be specific about your attention / manipulation check question! What did you
specifically ask? How did you measure participant responses to the manipulation check? Was it multiple choice, true/false, fillintheblank, or a scale? If you don’t tell your reader, they won’t know how you measured that variable.
vi. Finally, mention debriefing. You don’t need a lot of detail here since most researchers understand what goes into a generic debriefing statement
c.
Copying survey material:
i. Guess what! You can copy and paste materials that participants saw in your survey directly into your materials and procedure section. These are not direct quotes since they are your materials, so feel free to copy instructions from the survey, specific questions you asked, or independent variable information. That gives the reader great insight into the materials that participants saw, so feel free to copy and paste!
ii. As another option, you can refer the reader to an appendix with the actual surveys (though I prefer that you discuss the questions in the text, since going to an appendix disrupts the flow of information and forces the reader to flip through pages to find information).
The Results Section (10 points)
1.
Formatting the results section
a. Write
Results at the top of this section, center it, and use boldface. This section comes directly at the end of the methods section, so the results section DOES NOT start on its own page.
i. Note that some instructors may not do this Loafing study, but the results section should follow the same guidelines regardless of your study topic.
2.
The results section content requirements
a. The results are the hardest part of this paper, and your lab powerpoints can help you (also refer to the crash course statistics quizzes, which walk you through similar analyses!).
b. For Paper Two, include statistics about the most important variables in your study, including your IV (Loafing Condition – Individual Total, Group Total, or Group Average) and the DVs you feel are most important to your hypotheses. I suggest focusing on both the Part Two Math Total Score as well as either Question 1 or Question 2 in Part Three, as both are hypotheses relevant.
c. So let me be VERY specific:
You must run
at least three different analyses on three
different dependent variables
. One analysis must be an ANOVA (again, I recommend looking the Total Math Score from Part Two). The second analysis should also be an ANOVA (where I recommend looking at either Question 1 or Question 2 in Part Three). The final analysis
must be a chi square for question 7 in Part Four of your survey (which asks participants to recall how we defined the “Best Performance” – Highest individual score, Highest total group score, Highest average group score). This is our manipulation check, which looks at the three answer options in question 7).
i.
Note: Although you
can
run a
tTest rather than a second ANOVA, I do not recommend it. A
tTest only looks at two conditions, but there are three conditions in your study (Individual Total, Group Total, or Group Average), so ignoring one of them does not make empirical sense. Why collect data for three conditions and ignore one of them?
ii. If you do use a
tTest, just note that you cannot look at the same DV as your ANOVA. We count the number of DVs that you analyze – NOT the number of statistical tests you run! So, you cannot run an ANOVA on Question 1 and then run a
tTest on question 1 again. That is only one DV. Still, I suggest not running a
tTest at all for this study.
3.
The results section and the chi square
a. Your first analysis will be a chi square, which is used for categorical DVs (yes / no; yes / no / maybe; male / female, or … in our case, “What did we tell you was the basis for the “Best Performance” from Question 7 in Part Four). So, let’s discuss the chi square, which does not look at mean scores but rather counts how many responses there are compared to how many you would expect.
b. The specific question asked, “Without looking back, recall the instructions we determine the “Best Performance” in Part One. What did we tell you was the basis for the “Best Performance” (Mark one with an X):” The options were Highest individual score, Highest total group score, Highest average group score. Here, you can run a chi square looking at the frequencies of the three answer options
c. We are interested in the chi square (
χ2) and
p value. We also provide
percentages for each of our groups (we do not include means and
SDs since you need interval data for those statistics). There are two ways to analyze a chi square:
i. The easy way: Look at how many participants in each category accurately recall the expectation manipulation.
1.
Significant finding: “Using Social Loafing Condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total vs. Group Average) as our independent variable and recall of how we defined “Best Performance” as the dependent variable, we saw a significant effect,
χ2(4) = 4.49,
p = .021. Most participants in the “Individual Total” condition recalled being told that the Best Performance involves the highest individual score (78%); most participants in the “Group Total” condition recalled being told that the Best Performance involves the highest total group score (66%); and most participants in the “Group Average” condition recalled being told that the Best Performance involves the highest average group score (90%). Cramer’s V was strong for this analysis. This indicates that participants saw our manipulation as intended.”
2.
Nonsignificant finding: “Using Social Loafing Condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total vs. Group Average) as our independent variable and recall of how we defined “Best Performance” as the dependent variable, we did not see a significant effect,
χ2(4) = 1.49,
p = .065. Participants did not differ in their recall of how we defined Best Performance between the “Individual Total” condition (54%), the “Group Total” condition (53%) or “Group Average” condition (53%). Cramer’s V was weak for this analysis. This indicates that participants did not see our manipulation as intended.”
ii. The hard way: You can also look at “overall correct” vs. “overall incorrect” recall. This is a bit trickier to run in SPSS, since you need to
add up ALL those who correctly remembered the correct manipulation (those in the Individual Total condition who Highest individual total + those in the Group Total condition who recalled Highest group total + those in the Group Average condition who recalled Highest group average) and compare them to ALL the people who were incorrect in their recall.
1. In this instance, you would not want the chi square to be significant. That is, you might conclude “There was no difference between those who got the manipulation check question correct across the three different conditions,
χ2(4) = 1.49,
p = .099.” (In other words, participants were equally correct in all conditions).
2. My advice is to go with the easy chi square (a. above)
iii. Quick notes
1. Cramer’s V is required for 3 X 3 designs. Here, we have 3 study conditions and 3 answer options, so 3 X 3. Only use Phi if you have a 2 X 2 study (two conditions and two answer options)
2. Make sure to italicize the
χ and
p
4.
The results section and the OneWay ANOVA
a. Since your condition independent variable has
three levels (e.g. Individual Total vs. Group Total vs. Group Average), the most appropriate test is a OneWay ANOVA if your DV is scaled (like a 0 to 10 scale or a 1 to 7 scale). Your lab and lecture powerpoints show you how to conduct an ANOVA, but here are some guidelines I want to give you about how to write your results. Below I walk you through one analysis specific to this paper.
i. First, there are several dependent variables to choose from. For my example analysis below, I want to focus on Part Two in your survey (Total Math Score, or how many problems the participant completed out of 42). Since can solve between 0 to 42 problems (that is, each uses a least an interval scale) an ANOVA is the best statistical test to run.
ii. Second, given that this study has one IV with three levels and we will look at one DV at a time, a
OneWay ANOVA is the best test to use to see if there are significant differences among the three IV levels for that one DV. We look first at the ANOVA table (or
F table) and focus on the between subject factor. We note the degrees of freedom, the
F value itself, and the
p value. (We will get into factorial ANOVAs later in this course, but here we only have one independent variable, so we can use a OneWay ANOVA. Yes, we have three levels to our IV, but it is still only one IV).
iii. Third, if the
p value is significant (less than .05), we have one more step to take. Since our IV has three levels, we need to compare mean A to mean B, mean A to mean C, and mean B to mean C. We do this using a post hoc test (try using Tukey!). Tukey will tell us which of the means differ significantly. You then write up the results. For example, let’s say I ran an ANOVA on the dependent variable in Part Two: Total Math Score. My write up would look like the one below (though note: I completely made up the data below, so do not copy the numbers!) …
1.
Significant ANOVA:
a.
We ran a One Way ANOVA using Social Loafing condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total vs. Group Average) as our independent variable and Total Math Score as the dependent variable. We found a significant condition effect,
F(2, 203) = 4.32,
p = .032. Tukey post hoc tests showed that participants completed more math problems in the Individual Total condition (
M = 27.56,
SD = 1.21) than participants in both the Group Total (
M = 17.24,
SD = 0.89) and Group Average (
M = 18.23,
SD = 0.77) conditions. The Group Total and Group Average conditions, however, did not differ from each other. This supports our prediction that participants are less likely to engage in social loafing if their score is individually examined.
Note that the word “less” is very important here. Conditions do not simply differ. One is LESS than the others (or HIGHER, or LOWER, etc.)
i. Note there are lots of possible outcomes. The one above says that the Individual Total condition differed from Group Total and Group Average conditions, but that the two group conditions did not differ from each other (In other words, IT ≠ GT = GA). However, we might also find that none of the three conditions differ from each other (IT = GT = GA) or we might find that all conditions differ from each other (IT ≠ GT ≠ GA), so they all differ. Want to see an example of nonsignificance? Okay …
2.
NonSignificant ANOVA. Think about this for Part Three, Question 1, where we predicted that all participants believed they completed more math problems than average
a. We ran a One Way ANOVA using Social Loafing condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total vs. Group Average) as our independent variable and ratings of “I solved more math problems than the average participant” as the dependent variable. We failed to find a significant condition effect,
F(2, 203) = 2.32,
p = .232. Participant ratings did not differ between the Individual Total (
M = 3.45,
SD = 1.21), Group Total (
M = 3.24,
SD = 0.89) and Group Average (
M = 3.23,
SD = 0.77) conditions. This shows that regardless of condition, participants felt like they did not engage in social loafing.
iv. Fourth, make sure to italicize the
F,
p,
M, and
SD (as in the example)
b. Pretty simple, right! Again, I suggest using ANOVAs to look at Part Two (Total Math Score) and either Question 1 or Question 2 in Part Three (Performance Thoughts)
c. Note that you could also run a
tTest on any of these dependent variables, looking at the Individual Total versus Group Total conditions only, or IT versus Group Average, or GT versus GA. However, it makes more sense to look at all three conditions using an ANOVA this semester since you collected data for all three conditions. Still, let me give you some insight into the
tTest.
5.
The results section and the tTest:
a. If you have only two IV levels (e.g. Individual Total versus Group Total only), things are even more simple. However, I do NOT expect you to run a
tTest since you have three IV levels.
i. Note once again that a
tTest looks at differences between only two groups. Again, your lab presentations tell you how to run this, but you can do it on your own as well (you can even run a
tTest if your study originally has three levels to the IV – when you go into the
tTest menu in SPSS, simply click “define groups” and select 1 and 2 (Individual Total = 1 and Group Total = 2). This lets you look at two of the groups! You could also select “2 and 3” or “1 and 3” where the Group Average condition = 3).
ii. Rather than an
F value, there is a
t value in the
tTest data output. There is one number for the degree of freedom, a
t value, and a
p value.
iii. The nice thing about a
tTest is that because you only have two groups, you do not need a post hoc test like Tukey (you only need that if you need to compare three means. Here, we only have two means, so we can just look at them and see which is higher and which is lower when our
tTest is significant). Then just write it up …
1.
Significant
tTest
: We ran an independent samples
tTest using Social Loafing condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total) as our independent variable and Total Math Score as the dependent variable. We found a significant condition effect,
t(203) = 7.12,
p = .021. Participants completed more math problems in the Individual Total condition (
M = 27.56,
SD = 1.21) than in the Group Total condition (
M = 18.23,
SD = 0.77).
a. A quick note here. Look at the means for this
tTest example and the ANOVA example for the significant ANOVA on page 10. The means and
SDs are identical. That is because the
tTest and ANOVA both look at the means for the Individual Total and Group Total conditions for the same dependent variable. That is why you cannot run a
tTest and ANOVA on the same DV, as it is essentially the same statistical analysis.
2.
Nonsignificant
tTest
: We ran an independent samples
tTest using Social Loafing condition (Individual Total vs. Group Total) as our independent variable and Total Math Score as the dependent variable. We failed to find a significant condition effect,
t(203) = 1.12,
p = .128. Participants solved a similar number of math problems in the Individual Total condition (
M = 24.23,
SD = 0.21) and the Group Total condition (
M = 24.34,
SD = 0.89).”
iv. Repeat for other dependent variables
v. Make sure to italicize the
t,
p,
M , and
SD (as in the example)
6.
Statistics order recommendation for the results section
a. For this paper, start your results section with the chi square (your manipulation check). After all, if your manipulation check shows participants did not pay attention, then there is no need to run any other analyses! Then talk about your main analyses (The Total Math Score variable from Part Two and Question 1 or 2 from Part Three). Make sure the analyses line up with your hypotheses.
b. There is no page minimum or maximum for the results section, though I would expect it to be at least a paragraph for
each dependent variable analysis.
Tables (4 points)
1.
Tables overview: I want to make sure you are including the correct numbers in your results section, so I want you to include all relevant SPSS tables for each of your analyses.
a. Table 1 (Demographics): Include tables for age, gender, and ethnicity.
b. Table 2 (Chi square): Include tables for your chi square and the crosstabs
c. Table 3 (ANOVA): Include your tables for your first dependent variable (This must be an ANOVA table, the descriptive statistics table for that ANOVA, and the post hoc test)
d. Table 4 (ANOVA or
tTest): Include your tables for you second dependent variable (If it is a
tTest, include
tTest tables here. This would involve both the descriptives for the
tTest and the
tTest output itself. Again, I prefer that your second analysis also be an ANOVA and NOT a
tTest)
e. Table 5 and beyond (If applicable): Not required, but feel free to run additional statistics if you like and add Table 5 or more!
2.
Tables Placement:
a. Although the 7th Edition of the APA Publication manual allows you to place your tables at either the end of the manuscript (in a series of appendices) or embed them within the text itself, we require the latter placement option. That is, include your table(s) immediately after your table callout.
i. Participant tables: Include your participant tables (for age, gender, and ethnicity) immediately after the participant section (and before the methods / procedure section).
ii. Chi square tables: You will include your chi square tables (including the crosstabulation table, chi square table, and symmetric measures table) right after the callout.
iii. ANOVA tables: For the ANOVA, once again use a table callout. Then copy the ANOVA tables (descriptive statistics, ANOVA table, and post hoc tables) from SPSS and paste them immediately after the callout.
b. See the example paper for a visual aide.
3.
How to copy table content:
a. The best way to get tables is to copy them directly from SPSS. In the SPSS output, right click on the table, copy it, and then paste it into your paper after the callout. (If you double click the table in SPSS, you can adjust the width of cells or even delete some of the columns).
b. Another alternative is to use a “snipping” tool (search “snipping tool” in Microsoft Word to find it). You can highlight an area on any computer page and save it as a picture. Copy the picture and paste it into your table pages. Easy!
4.
Table formatting
a. Make sure to give a proper name to each table (e.g.
Table 1) followed by a good description of what is in the table in italics (e.g.
Study One Demographics)
b. Each table is flush left, as is the title. See the example paper for a visual aide
c. I am not worried if your table spills over onto multiple lines. If it spills over, that is fine. I just need to see the full table and the numbers need to be readable
Discussion Study One (2 points)
1.
Discussion overview
a. In this section, tell me about your results and if they did or did not support your predictions. It will help to refer back to your hypotheses “We expected to find A, but instead we found B” or “We predicted A, and results supported this hypothesis.” Explain using plain English why you think your study turned out the way it did. Avoid just copying and pasting the hypotheses from your literature review. Give me the gist of your predictions to avoid being overly repetitive
b. IMPORTANT – Do NOT give me statistics here. I can find those in your results section. Here, all I want is a plain English summary of your findings.
c. Also, do not give me results for a DV if you did not run an analysis on that DV. Only tell me about the results you actually looked at in the results section.
d. There is no length requirement for this section, but I recommend at least four or five sentences
Writing Quality (3 points)
1.
Writing quality overview
a. Make sure you check your paper for proper spelling and grammar. The FIU writing center is available if you want someone to look over your paper (an extra eye is always good!) and give you advice. I highly recommend them, as writing quality will become even more important on future papers. I also recommend visiting the FIU Research Methods Help Center if you need additional guidance with writing or statistical analyses. Also, remember to upload this paper through the Pearson writer before uploading to Canvas!
i. Use a spell checker and the grammar checker to prevent errors. Proofread everything you write. I actually recommend reading some sentences aloud to see if they flow well, or getting family or friends to read your work.
b. Make sure to use the past tense throughout your paper. You already did the study, so do not tell me what participants are going to do. Tell me what they already did!
Other Helpful Hints
1.
Page size: Use 8 1/2 X 11” with all 4 margins should be one inch. You
must use a 12point font in Times New Roman.
2.
Supporting documents: Make sure to look at the supporting documents for this paper. Like Paper I, there is a checklist, a grade rubric, and an example paper for Paper II. (Definitely use the Paper II Checklist before you turn in your paper to make sure it is the best paper you can write!, but all will give you more information about what we are specifically looking for as well as a visual example of how to put it all together in your paper). Good luck!
Paper II Grade Rubric
Criteria
Ratings
Title Page Criteria
(1 point)
1. Header (in ALL CAPS)
2. Page number
3. Descriptive Title (in
bold)
4. Your Name
5. Your University
6. Perfect APA formatting
Meets all criteria
1 point
Does not meet all criteria
0 point
Methods Section Criteria
(15 points)
1. Includes section titles in proper APA format
2. Provides participant data (demographics) accurately and thoroughly in APA format
3. Provides demographic table callout
4. Discusses consent
5. Describes the formatting of the material (e.g. Paper Survey, Online Survey, etc.)
6. Describes participant selection
7. Describes the independent variable(s) in detail so a reader could replicate your study design
8. Describes the dependent variable(s) in similar detail, including they type of scale used and scale endpoints
9. Describes the procedure in detail
10. Avoids repetitiveness.
Meets all criteria
15 points
Mets at least 8 criteria
10 to 14 points
Meets at least 6 criteria
5 to 9 points
Meets at least 4 criteria
1 to 4 points
Meets 0 to 3 criteria
0
points
Results Section Criteria
(10 points)
1. Provides three statistical analyses (minimum) on three different dependent variables
2. Includes independent and dependent variable names for each analysis consistent with the same names used in the methods section
3. Provides statistical outcomes in proper APA formatting (
italics for letters, rounding to two decimals, etc.)
4. Provides all relevant numbers for each analysis (e.g. percentages for the chi square; means and SDs for each condition in the independent variable)
5. Analyzes hypothesesrelevant variables
Meets all criteria
10 points
Meets at least 4 criteria
7 to 9 points
Meets at least 3 criteria
4 to 6 points
Meets at least 2 criteria
1 to 3 points
Meets 0 to 1 criteria
0
points
Discussion Section Criteria
(2 point)
1. Reviews the hypothesis
2. Compares the findings to the hypotheses
3. Avoids statistical numbers
Meets all criteria
2 points
Meets 2 criteria
1 point
Meets 0 to 1 criteria
0 point
Tables Criteria (4 point)
1. Includes all four tables with callouts intext
2. Demographics table (the descriptives table for age and frequency tables for gender and race)
3. Chi square table (with crosstab table and chi square table)
4. One ANOVA tables (with descriptives, ANOVA table, and post hoc table as needed)
5. One additional ANOVA table
or one
tTest table (with descriptive table and tTable)
Meets all criteria
4 points
Meets 3 criteria
2 to 3 points
Meets 2 criteria
1 to 2 points
Meets 0 to 1 criteria
0 points
Writing Quality Criteria
(3 points)
1. Uses proper spelling and punctuation
2. Has good transition between sentences
3. Includes good detail that informs the reader about important information in each paper section
4. Avoids plagiarism
Meets
all criteria
3 points
Meets 2 to 3 criteria
2 points
Meets 0 to 1 criteria
0 to 1 points