Considering the ethical theory of St. Augustine, the action of the office worker was doing bad as his action was causing others to suffer, an evil consequence. According to Augustine evil can be referred as the lack of goodness but people are allowed to do evil in order to achieve what has been destined by God. So those who are being burdened by the evil of the office worker should not focus on the evil deed but have faith that it is what god wants to happen. But Augustine does not refer that each action should be penalized but at least such actions need some ultimatums to be corrected. While Aquinas theory predicts that since the office worker was doing evil, it was by his own will. So he should have been penalized to learn what his duty is and let others not be burdened and de-motivated by the evil of a careless worker.
Analyzing the act of Rhonda, it is well established that back-biting about others is a bad act while she was gossiping about others including her friends. This act can’t be justified to be good in either Augustine’s philosophy or following the theory of Aquinas. As both believe that evil is something that lack goodness, either of them differs in the way that evil is caused. Aquinas believe that evil is not determined by the outcomes but by the intent of individual committing that deed, while Augustine believes that one chooses to be evil as it is destined by god. Utilizing Aquinas belief it can be justified that since Rhonda does not attempt to hurt others intentionally but to have good time so this intention might make her act to be good but the other side of it can’t be ignored as this is against the laws of god to enjoy by hurting others.