Proto-science can be alternatively called as the pre-science period but it had nonetheless contributed a lot to the development of established scientific methods.
Simple observations of the workings of nature ensured survival of primitive peoples. It could include things like when animals will gather, where these animals drink and the various shrubs, berries and fruits of trees that are edible or poisonous (Hassler & Wilcox, 2008, p. 8). It can be described that life back then was very precarious that depended mostly on Nature on how Man manages to adapt himself to Nature. Seasons and weather patterns likewise have to be predicted with a certain degree of accuracy in order for men to prepare themselves.
This paper tries to examine how these primitive societies managed to survive from the rigors and challenges of Nature from which we are descended. It is quite interesting to note that due to this preoccupation with adjusting to Nature, men had learned almost by instinct on how to interpret the world to ensure survival. It had become second nature (pardon the pun) in which men at those times behaved resulting into an in-built bias that served as a very survival mechanism by relating the cause to its effect. This is the discussion in this paper.
The hunter-gatherer societies existed before man learned to develop agriculture. Due to the very nature of being entirely dependent on the vagaries of Nature, man has no choice but to become nomadic whenever and wherever there is plentiful food supply and where it is relatively safe for him to obtain such food supplies. Because of man’s innate capacity to learn and learn quickly, observation of Nature alone is not sufficient for him to survive. To be able to make sense of the observed patterns in Nature, man has to construct a model. This model is then used to resolve the ambiguities often seen in Nature.