They are of variety of shapes and sizes. The thickness is always twice the diameter of concrete armour unit for the tetra pod layers Concrete.20
The experiment on the coastal engineering was carried out in the hydraulics laboratory for approximately two hours. This experiment consisted of two parts. Part one was linear wave theory and part two was breakwater design. The venue of the experiment was Sopwith building
Waves are created when wind blows on top of the sea and the bottom layer receives frictional drag from the surface of the sea which exerts frictional drag to the next wind layer above it. This process continues in all the wind layers.
The coastal zone is very important to the community around it. For the community to survive, the engineers play a big role in protecting this zone against flooding, erosion and destruction of property by the ocean waves and tides. The laboratory work is important in that to avoid all this natural disasters.
To analyse the wave behaviour and linear theory, the observation of different sets of waves was done. The waves had the periods of 1.0s 1.5sand 2.0s. The speed, length and height of the waves facilitated calculation of the theoretical values of the wavelength
The measurements lead to commendation on how the waves acted on the coast and how they were reflected on the vertical wall. The waves that are reflected on the vertical surface had no horizontal movement and are referred to as standing waves.
A rubble mound breakwater was created to make the wave to move over it Smaller waves with period 1.0s, were created to come to the conclusion about how they affect the model structure. This observation ended when the rubble mound breakwater finally failed.
The wave height of a surface wave is the difference between the elevations of a crest (the highest point of the wave) and a neighbouring trough (the lowest point of the wave) as it is shown at the figure below.