DiscussionWrite a general response to the lesson, about 250 words. Including designers, film and fashion, and style icons of the time. Include in that assessment of subcultures, film and fashion, celebrity style setters, etc.Watch the videos
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGU_4-5RaxU(blank) THE 1970S Read Chapter 10: The 1970s in your textbook. Please read about Fashion in the 1970s. https://fashionhistory.fitnyc.edu/1970-1979/ Trends at the Beginning of the Decade The big news in fashion as 1970 began was the hemline. In 1947 when hemlines went down the world was more inclined to take the word of Paris as fashion law. But the 1960s had changed that with so many styles encouraging individual taste, and even Paris did not have a united voice. Given all this, the fashion customer did not know what choice to make. Here a young woman wearing a Pucci minidress confronts her reflection holding up a rust-colored folksy mid-calf skirt. It is as if the 1960s is being engulfed by the look of the 1970s. But the reality was that both would coexist for a while. This image was on the cover of Life magazine in early 1970. Later on in the same year the mini / midi / maxi conflict would once again be the cover story for the magazine. Cover of life magazine Amid all of the confusion of what hemline was in style, some designers chose to feature several options. In this photo is Yves Saint Laurent with two models, standing out front of his ready-to-wear boutique. Notice how one model is in a miniskirt and one is in a midiskirt. On the left are two suits by Parisian Guy Laroche, below the knew. The dress in center is by Pierre Cardin, maxi when still - mini in motion. Right is Twiggy modeling a miniskirt. The knitwear market blossomed, and was in fact the most widespread it had been since the 1920s. On the left is the new up-marketing of T-shirts, becoming trendy fashion. In the center and right are ensembles from Dorothy Bis, an upscale French knitwear brand. Note the short shorts on the right (see next slide). Extremely short shorts were nicknamed “hot pants”, and while the miniskirt was starting to go out of style, the very short hot pants were just coming in. Note left and center that they are paired with some form of platform shoe. Here is a pair of wooden platform shows worn with anklets (another passing fad) and a midi length skirt. The wooden platforms were very common, and clogs (imported from Northern Europe) were also very popular, especially at the beginning of the decade. Unisex continued and grew in the early decade. On the left are his and hers matching suits from Marimekko. The other two images are both from Rudi Gernreich, and are much more experimental. The ethnographic and folkloric styles continued also. Here is a dress from Giorgio di Sant Angelo. This dress is a combination of American Indian, East Indian, Victorian, and Middle Ages. That is a lot for one dress! This is the cover of an American paper pattern for loungewear in the style of a North African djellaba. This is a great example of the ethnographic inspirations in high fashion sliding down to the vernacular level. On the left are peasant style ensembles from Mary Quant. Note the lace-up corset belts and the floral print. On the right is the American singer Judy Collins, reviving the Bohemian style of the 1910s. Left is a Granny dress on the very high end – from Yves Saint Laurent. On the right is the same idea at mass market department store level. In the center is a paper pattern that mixes both Granny and peasant elements. Retro continued and thrived during the 1970s. At left is a French pantyhose advertisement, note the art deco style and 1930s hairstyles. On the right is a Mary Quant makeup ad. Designers Laura Ashley was a British designer, elevating the Granny dress trends into charming Victorian styles. Her work was often known as ”milkmaid dresses”, and she also did textiles and housewares. Jean Muir was a British designer who opened her business in the 1960s. During the early 1970s she was very much on the leading edge of the trend for sexy and fluid knitwear. We met Thea Porter last week. She continued her Middle Eastern style caftans (center and right) and also did designs with Central Asian textiles (left). Porter opened a boutique on New York’s Upper East Side in 1970 and it was very popular. The British designer Zandra Rhodes began her career as a textile designer, And as she transitioned into fashion design during the late 1960s, she usually designed the textiles for her fashion designs. Her textiles designs ranged from Art Deco to primitive tribal designs. The dresses would often have full skirts and full sleeves to show off the textiles to their best advantage. Rhodes made a trip to Australia in the early 1970s and studied the landscape, and studied the art of the aboriginal peoples. This textile design (left) and dress (right) are from that inspirational trip. The rock in the landscape is called Uluru; in the 1970s it was known as Ayers Rock, and this was called the “Ayers Rock print”. Here are two other designs with aboriginal Australian inspiration. In the 1970s, Rhodes was celebrated for promoting multi culturalism and promoting the Aboriginal culture. In later years she was denounced for cultural appropriation. Ossie Clark working with Celia Birtwell continued the bold colorful prints (often with a retro art deco feel). The model shown here is Jane Birkin (whom the Birkin bag was named after). Clark and Birtwell models are seen striking theatrical poses, and wearing 1930s hairstyles. The dresses are typical of Clark’s style. Note the platform shoes on the left. Barbara Hulanicki at Biba opened up a very large retail space in an old building, naming the store “Big Biba”. It was a departure from her earlier boutique approach, and now the retail store was in a glorious and theatrical art deco space, the ultimate expression of the retro look. The clothing and images in advertising and editorials stressed both trendy looks, such as at left, and vintage glamor, such as at right. The 1930s and 40s looks were integral, and often hats were especially important. Notice how the photography is inspired by vintage styles. Smoky colors such as these (plum, dark brown, off-black) were also important to the look at Biba, as Hulanicki thought they expressed nostalgia for the earlier decades, and she called them “auntie” colors. Yves Saint Laurent continued his dominance of Paris fashion. Here he is with models walking in Paris. The pants ensemble on the left was typical of his promoting more pants for women. Read the article about Saint Laurent at the link below. https://www.dazeddigital.com/fashion/article/25429/1/how-yves-saint-laurent-changed-fashion This collection from 1971 caused a great deal of scandal. While 1940s inspiration was in keeping with the retro trend (such as with Biba), inspiration for this collection included the German occupation of Paris during World War II. Watch the video linked below: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AUCH3wbhUB0 As in the 1960s, during the 1970s Yves Saint Laurent continued to reinvent himself with new looks each season. On the left are maxi skirts and kerchiefs inspired by country French folk dress. On the right are appliqued suede dresses, taking inspiration from the artist Matisse, as well as South American gauchos. Pierre Cardin moved past his space age styles and experimented with form and drape a great deal in the 70s Frequently Cardin explored ideas of circles, and also creative drapery in jersey. Sonia Rykiel began her career as a Paris designer focusing on knitwear, including a variety of novelty yarns and a variety of textures. Although she did woven pieces also, the knitwear would continue to be vital to her output Founded In Italy in 1953, Missoni was a phenomenon in the knitwear market by this decade. The husband and wife team, Ottavio and Rosita Missoni, collaborated together: Ottavio designing the clothing and Rosita designing the knit patterns In the untied States, Calvin Klein was the leader. And he created elegant but relaxed clothes often drawing on the work of Claire McCardell and other great American sportswear designers. Here are 2 looks, typical Calvin Klein in style, worn by American model Lauren Hutton. Ralph Lauren designed clothing that is often considered “aspirational” in that it dressed the fashion customer as wealthy white Anglo-Saxon Protestant Northeastern people. The styles on the right were inspired by the Great Gatsby, and the on the right by the Duke and Duchess of Windsor,. Diane Von Furstenberg is often credited with inventing the wrap dress, which as you know, is false having learned about Clair McCardell. But it was a highly sophisticated and popular design, available in a home sewer pattern. The genius of Von Furstenberg’s design was taking the established wrap dress concept and doing it in jersey, making it totally in synch with the feel of the 1970s. Von Furstenberg often appeared in her publicity shots wearing her own designs. Here she is in her wrap dress on the left, and a jersey shirtwaist dress on the right. Geoffrey Beene was an American designer who emerged in the 1960s. His work was often playful, highly creative, and inflected with retro influences. Here are three granny dresses designed by Beene that are typical of his playful style. Mary McFadden began her clothing line in the 1960s. She was influenced by art, world cultures, and history. Here is Indonesian inspiration on the left, inspiration from painter Gustave Klimt in the center, and inspiration from designer Mariano Fortuny on the right. McFadden treated her clothing designs as works of art. Color was very important to McFadden, and often (as with here) the textiles were hand painter by her studio. Halston became famous for elegant neoclassic evening gowns that were reminiscent of the 1930s, both in their cut and their pale colors. At this time, this type of gown became known as a “Goddess Dress” and possibly that term was invented by Halston himself. However, it became a common fashion term ever since. Ultra suede was a synthetic fake suede that was developed and first marketed in 1970. Halston utilized the fabric to great effect, and an Ultrasuede shirtwaist style dress became a signature designer of his throughout the decade. Oscar de la Renta was from the Dominican Republic. He started his career assisting for Balenciaga, and established himself as a New York designer in the 1960s. His work was elegant, often luxurious, with inspiration from Latin American culture. Anne Klein founded her company in 1968 after working for several years in the industry, including in childrens wear. The Anne Klein & Company label was devoted to wearable but sophisticated clothes for stylish women. Her signature motif was a male lion, which appeared on scarves and buttons (seen here) and a variety of other things The dress seen here combines a peasant touch of the lace up belt, but with an urban sophistication. Klein was often noted for innovative outerwear such as the those shown here, from an editorial and from a company sketch. Stephen Burrows emerged in the 1970s as a big star in American design. These images are good examples of his playful use of color and color blocking. Burrows was also noted for his very sophisticated sense of drapery as we can see here with this layered skirt and layered collar. Note the hems of the dresses: Steven Burrows used a technique called “lettuce edge” where the edge of a knit fabric was put through an overlock machine, making it stretch out into a ripple effect. The lettuce edge became a Burrows trademark. Bill Blass had already acquired several years of experience in the New York fashion industry. In 1970 he purchased another company and renamed it Bill Blass Ltd., founding a line in his own name. Blass’s style was classic and elegant, and he appealed to an adult woman, sometimes New York City society ladies. In 1973, a special fashion show was held at the Palace of Versailles outside of Paris. The admission was a benefit to raise money for the restoration of the palace. Among those in attendance were Princess Grace (Grace Kelly), Josephine Baker, and Liza Minnelli. A group of American designers were invited to Paris to show along with a group of local Parisian designers. Representing The United States were Bill Blass, Stephen Burrows, Halston, Anne Klein, and Oscar de la Renta. Representing France were Pierre Cardin, March Bohan for Christian Dior, Hubert de Givenchy, Yves Saint Laurent, and Emanuel Ungaro. Watch the Youtube video below. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkFxzMsIbBg Kansai Yamamoto was from Japan and had distribution in the United States (primarily in Philadelphia). His work was very modernist but also based on Japanese tradition. He also did performance clothing, including for David Bowie (more on that later). Both of these ensembles by Kansai are based on historic Japanese design. His inspirations included Japanese woodblock prints, kabuki makeup, tattooing, and kimono. The ensemble on the left was inspired by an 18th century fireman’s suit. Film and Fashion Klute (1971) was a crime thriller, starring Jane Fonda as a prostitute trying to break into modeling. The costume design was by Ann Roth, one of the most important costume designers of the late 20th century. Fonda’s look was known for her high boots, but her shag haircut was particularly important and set a huge trend in North America. In the film, Jane Fonda wears a dress by Norman Norell that costumer Ann Roth selected for the film. Read about Jane Fonda, Klute, and the Norell dress at the link below. http://theharlow.net/norellklute/ Cabaret (1972) was based on a Broadway musical and had stylized 1930s period costumes designed by German designer Charlotte Flemming. The film starred Liza Minelli, who had her good friend Halston brought it to collaborate on her costumes. The image in Cabaret of Liza Minelli in a man’s hat, halter top, and boots straddling a chair was widely reproduced in the film’s publicity and in the media and became the movie’s most recognizable costume. Watch the musical number: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lxmz3RcNNBE The movie, and that costume, had a very significant effect on fashion editorials and photo shoots. On the left is a shoot for Valentino, and on the right is a shoot for Rudi Gernreich. The Great Gatsby (1974) was a film adaptation of the 1920s novel. The costumes were designed by Theoni V. Aldredge, an important film and Broadway designer. Starring Mia Farrow and Robert Redford, the elegant look of the film inspired fashion editorials, and continued retro trends in fashion. The film won the Oscar for Costume Design. Note the fit of Robert Redford’s sweater; that is more a 1970s fit than it is a 1920s fit. Mia Farrow’s hair continued to popularize 1920s and 30s hairstyles in fashion, but it also reflects reinterpretation with a 1970s point of view. Mahogany (1975) starred Diana Ross (who designed her own costumes) and it presented Ross as a fashion designer and model, depicting both American and European fashion industry. Glam Rock Glam Rock was a style of music that developed primarily in London in the early 1970s. It was typified by the musicians wearing outrageous and Flamboyant costumes, ranging from goofy, to sci fi, to campy and androgynous. Often makeup was extreme, and glitter, feathers, and platform shoes were typical. Pictured here is Slade, an English band that started in the late 1960s and was one of the most important bands to the Glam Rock movement by the early 1970s. Elton John, the British singer, was very important to Glam Rock. His stage costumes were very theatrical and outrageous. He wore large – often jeweled – sunglasses which were fundamental to his stage look. The androgynous David Bowie had his own niche in the Glam Rock movement. And his music was often experimental. These two stage costumes were designed by Japanese designer Kansai Yamamoto. Boney M, the German-Caribbean vocal group often had retro looks as well as Science Fiction style. For their song “Rasputin” the followed the ethnographic trends and dressed in Russian-inspired costumes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vIjdhIErp8I Movies such as The Phantom of the Paradise (1974), left, and The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975), right, brought Glam Rock to the movie screen and encouraged styles. Watch this selection from The Rocky Horror Picture Show. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=umj0gu5nEGs African American Style Eldredge Cleaver, a political activist, wore the African garment the dashiki. Dashikis became very fashionable, primarily among African American men, but with others. The illustration on the right for a home sewer pattern depicts both men and women, both black and white. Sometimes these shirts were made from authentic African textiles, sometimes they were made with domestically produced prints. Poet and playwright Ntozake Shange was known for her play For Colored Girls who have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow is Enuf. She also promoted wearing silk and cotton scarves as headscarves. Here is Shange in a photograph on the left, and the poster of the show, with the image likely based on Shange herself. The style for wearing headscarves like this was quickly adopted by other African American women, but it was also adopted by women of all ethnicities. Political activist Angela Davis was known for wearing her hair like this shown. Initially the style was known as a “natural” but over time it gained the name “afro”. It soon became popular for both women and men. The afro hairstyle was very quickly absorbed into high fashion London based model Marsha Hunt is seen here in a fashion photo shoot on the left. On the right is an American teenager. The Jackson 5 brought youthful exuberance both to their music and to their fashion styling, and with frequent television appearances became highly visible celebrities to a mainstream audience. Tamara Dobson made a huge impact playing a female undercover cop in the film Cleopatra Jones. In the film her costumes were created by Giorgio di Sant Angelo, and included several stunning fashion forward ensembles. Dobson wore her hair in an afro for much of the film. This movie, and several others at the time with African American themes and actors, were known as “Blacksploitation” films. Another actress, Pam Grier, made a mark by with the films Foxy Brown and Velvet Smooth and she also became a cultural icon at the time. If you have seen Austin Powers, the character played by Beyonce - “Foxy Cleopatra” was based on a combination of Tamara Dobson and Pam Grier. Watch: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gdmHHoI9beM African American men often strove for a dandyish approach to clothing. This was personified by actor Richard Roundtree who appeared in the film Shaft (1971). Several male sports stars of the time, such as Walt Frazier and Wilt Chamberlain, had a similar dandy style. The Isley Brothers, began as teenage performers in the 1950s. By the 1970s they had become top recording artists, and their style was a very advanced level of dandyism, wearing beads and lace and fringe . Watch Kool and the Gang sing “Jungle Boogie” at this link. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-BM5wPOe0xQ Beverly Johnson was a top model in New York and is seen on the left wearing Halston. On the right she is on the cover of Vogue in 1974; Johnson was the first AfricanAmerican model to appear on the cover of the United States edition of Vogue. Denim Fashion -andDesigner Jeans Denim apparel experienced a hugs surge in popularity by 1970, which continued into the decade. Often “his and hers” styles like both the illustrations here were seen. Embellished jeans began popularity in the late 1960s in hippy styles. Often the embellishment was do it yourself, and young women would frequently decorate jeans for their boyfriends. Left we see studs, in the center patches, and right many techniques. One of the first designers to feature jeans, which were usually created under licensing, was Yves Saint Laurent. Saint Laurent had an ad campaign with a shirtless man that predated the very similar ad campaign American sportswear designer Gloria Vanderbilt (who incidentally was the mother of Anderson Cooper) created her version of designer jeans, with her name label on the back pocket and the swan logo on the front pocket. These were very big sellers in the North American market. Fiorucci was an Italian company specializing in trashy, fun fashion. They also got involved in the designer jeans trend. Here we can see a model with her back to us. Notice the highlighted area on her butt on the jeans. This was achieved by using sandpaper to fade out the pigment, creating a highlight on the but. This was the type of DIY activity used to make one’s jeans special and personal. Disco Disco was short for “discotheque”, a French words that meant collection of records, but it was basically used to mean dance clubs that used recorded music instead of live music. The word came to also mean the style of music that was popular at these clubs, and it also was used to describe the culture. The culture particularly included the music, fashion and even unspoken dress codes. The center of disco culture was Studio 54, a dace club in Midtown Manhattan on West 54th Street. It became an important hangout for celebrities. Shown here are Liza Minelli (wearing Halston) and the Russian ballet dancer Mikhail Baryshnikov People would line up and wait for hours for the chance to get in, pulling up in limousines. The doormen were trained to only let the most beautiful people in. Special events and concerts happened very frequently. Here is Betsey Johnson, having just done a fashion show of her at Studio 54 in the late 1970s. Studio 54 even had its own line of jeans. This advertisement shows the two young people getting dressed into the jeans. Neither of them are wearing underwear, which was a pretty common practice as the style for wearing the jeans was very tight. Saturday Night Fever 1977 was a movie staring John Travolta that crystalized the disco crave into global popular culture. The costume design was by Patrizia von Brandenstein, who chose this white suit for Travolta, and paired with a black shirt. This ensemble became one of the most memorable style statements of the decade. Watch these clip from the movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUID0jSh2Ic https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxvBPH4sArQ Punk The London band The Sex Pistols, were responsible for the name “Punk”; when appearing on a popular television talk show their bad behavior led a journalist to say “who are these punks?”. The name stuck, and came to represent not just this band but a developing London subculture. Punk clothing often had elements of the wearer’s own customization, such as removing sleeves, or drawing and painting on one’s own T-shirts or jackets. Hair was very important to the look. The subculture was in protest of the British establishment and desired to be offensive and repellant. These young women demonstrate the essentially gender neutrality of Punk. Mohawk hairstyles with bleach and dye jobs, leather biker jackets, and Scottish kilts were all part of the mix. Punk promptly moved from protest and street into more fashion oriented expressions, while still within the subculture. What had been DIY styles became boutique driven. Vivienne Westwood is often identified as the “creator” of Punk. While that is nonsense, like most all “invention myths” in fashion history, she certainly helped promote the style more than any other designer, and was a very vital part of the scene and subculture. A sweatshirt and a T-shirt, existing pieces, that have been printed and embellished by Westwood. Typical of her stores “Let it Rock” and “Sex”. Trademark looks for Westwood included plaid, such as the pantsuit she is wearing, and “bondage pants” which is on the mannequin on the right. Bondage pants featured straps that bound the legs and tethered movement. Zandra Rhodes presented her fashion version of punk in 1977. Her ”Conceptual Chic” Collection, while praised by many for its fashion expression of punk, was actually a watered own interpretation, featuring disco-style metallic shoes, and lettuce edge hems. American punk rock vocalist Deborah Harry was the lead singer of the New York based band “Blondie”. Her style was important to American Punk style, which was centered in New York and Los Angeles. Harry wore her hair obviously bleached blonde, and sometimes intentionally showing her dark roots (such as center). Watch the link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGU_4-5RaxU Hair Icons In addition to Angela Davis, Jane Fonda and Deborah Harry, several other celebrities influenced popular hair styles. Figure skating champion Dorothy Hamill represented the United States in the 1976 Olympics in Austria, winning the gold medal and becoming a pop culture phenomenon in the USA and nicknamed “America’s Sweetheart”. Her wedge style haircut from celebrity hairstylist Yusuke Suga was widely copied by teenage girls. The cut was sometimes referred too as the “short and sassy” look. A similar look, the “pageboy” was worn and popularized by singer Toni Tennille of the popular music band The Captain and Tennille. She maintained the look for a few years, and it was widely imitated by teenagers and young women, often compared to men’s hairstyles of the middle ages and Italian Renaissance. The television series Charlie’s Angels deputed in 1976 and stared Farrah Fawcett, Kate Jackson and Jaclyn Smith. The show was an immediate pop culture phenomenon and quickly made sex symbols and fashion icons out of each of its stars. Farah Fawcett in particular was hailed as an important style setter, especially for her hair. Her signature style was a blow-dried “feathered” hairstyle and the look was widely copied. This poster was one of the bestselling posters in the United States of all time. I remember my older brother had one. In 10 (1979) actress Bo Derek became very famous for her athletic toned body, along with her ”corn row” hairstyle, embellished with beads. The style came from African culture, and had already become popular with African American women. But following Derek’s appearance in the film, it was adopted by more universally. This would eventually lead to controversy and dialogue on cultural issues. Annie Hall and the “Annie Hall Look” The 1977 film Annie Hall starred actress Diane Keaton in the title role, which was in part based on herself in real life. In creating the costumes, costume designer Ruth Morely worked closely Keaton, working with the actress’s own fashion sense. The style was a combination of thrift shop pieces often with menswear elements. The “Annie Hall Look” became a global phenomenon, even if it were called “la Stila Annie Hall” or “Der Tracht Annie Hall”. Here we see images of two American catalogs that show how the style went mainstream. Yves Saint Laurent Orientalist Collections, 1977 -1979 In 1977 Yves Saint Laurent showed a collection that was a genuine runway spectacle that wowed the press. He took the trends for peasant, ethnographic and folkloric styles and glamorized them to the highest degree. Russia, Central Asia, and Mongolia were the primary sources of inspiration. Luxurious fabrics such as the chiffon with metallic dots, taffeta, velvet, moiré were used. The skirts were gathered very full, peasant blouses were made of very non-peasanty textiles, and and lace-up corset belts defined the waist while turbans were worn on heads. Diana Vreeland, the editor of Vogue devoted an editorial to the collection (including this photo) and she declared “the most appetite whetting collection - not that a whole lot of women can afford to dress this way. But a whole lot of women are going to start thinking this way.” Luxurious accessories were fundamental to the glamor of the collection. These boots are exemplary of that. Also note that the hat resembles the Dr Zhivago trends. The following year his inspiration came from China as seen with these clothes here, and equally as sumptuous as the Russian collection. The luxurious and exotic feel of this Vogue cover gives us a good example of the influence that these collections had. The styling for this photo shoot is clearly Inspired by the feel of the Russian and Chinese collections. Smoky and metallic makeup like this became very popular towards the end of the 1970s. The necklace and dangling earrings reinforce the sense of Asiatic exoticism, High-end fashion design followed Saint Laurent, and here are two examples: on the left is an ensemble by Marc Bohan for Christian Dior, and on the right is a London photo shoot in a fashion magazine. Saint Laurent’s work affected most all market levels. On the left is a sumptuous evening ensemble from Oscar de la Renta in an American fashion magazine; on the right is a junior market ensemble in an American mail order catalog. another Egyptomania… The Treasures of Tutankhamen Artifacts that were excavated in the 1920s from the tomb of King Tutankhamun were put in a touring exhibition during the late 1970s. The exhibition was organized by the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and the first hosting museums of the exhibition were in the United Kingdom. Following were several stops in the United States, including New York, Washington, New Orleans, Seattle, Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco, as well as Toronto, Canada. North America was in the grip of yet another “Egyptomania” and this had a large impact on fashion, and popular culture. On the left is a jigsaw puzzle of King Tut’s death mask, and at right is comedian Steve Martin playing King Tut in a Saturday Night Live sketch. Top model Lauren Hutton models a dress on the left that is made from North African fabric associated with Egypt. On the right is an exotic Yves Saint Laurent design including an Egyptian style headdress . The Japanese designer (working in Paris) Kenzo Takada showed these looks in his 1979 Egyptian collection. Menswear This menswear ad from the early 1970s reflects a great deal of what was fashionable. Notice the flaps on shirt pockets, the color palate, nice jeans on the blonde guy, a patchwork quilt style on the pants on the right, a contrasting belt on the left. Also notice that the grouping of models shows diversity, something that would not have been likely in the 1950s and 1960s. Some menswear at the beginning and middle of the 1970s looks outrageous to our eyes today. Sometimes the term “peacock male” is used to describe this overt dandyism. In the early 70s shoes were loud and sometimes complicated. This style was contributed to by peacock male aesthetic, and the bold styles being embraced by African American men (that we looked at earlier), and even glam rock as well. These pairs of shoes are toward the extreme of fashion, and regular styles would not have been so bold. This is an actual photograph of real people showing how the look ended up on average guys, not models Bruce Lee, actor and martial artist, was notable as a sex symbol of AsianAmerican descent. His fashion looks ranged from very overt dandyism to athletic wear. The red track suit here was recently exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art. Robert Redford was another important style icon for men in this decade, appearing in films ranging from The Great Gatsby and The Sting to All the President’s Men. Famous for his male version of the shag haircut, his style was at times classic and at times rugged. Later in the decade more classic styles became reasserted, recalling 1950s suburban style, or classic 1930s styles. Designers such as Ralph Lauren and Calvin Klein, contributed to a new approach to stylish conservatism. Natural fibers were asserted. After being wide since the late 1960s, by 1979 neckties had narrowed again, back to the proportion of the late 1950s. As neckties narrowed, so did lapels of jackets. Fashion Photography Fashion photography often created images that were moody and claustrophobic, like these Vogue covers. Deborah Turberville created strange interiors with women looking in their own directions, often in locker rooms, creating uneasy and dreamlike images. Helmut Newton usually shot in black and white and created high contrast and shadowy images that had dark and sexual implications. Guy Bordain created sadomasochistic fantasies with lurid colors and disturbing implications Trends Approaching 1980 Classic, somewhat old fashioned, and established styles led the way to the 80s. Elements of the 1900s to the 1930s were drawn upon, but with a conservative slant and not a trendy one. Romantic, without being exotic, these designs here, by Andre Kim in Korea on the left and Bill Blass in the US on the right, show big sleeves and full skirts and anticipate the 80s. Look up Princess Diana’s wedding dress in 1981 and compare. Tailored jackets, paired with mid calf length full skirts and scoop t shirts became a classic and suitable for the office. These Saint-Laurent ensembles from 1979 anticipated the wide shoulder that came to popularity in the 1980s Note how the figure on the right resembles the early 1940s. Five American designers, including Ralph Lauren, Oscar de la Renta, and Anne Klein, are represented here in late 1979. The 1980s is clearly established. (blank) Chapter 10 The 1970s Revivals and Individuality The major theme of fashion in the 1970s is variety. The late 1960s established fashion genres that were explored further by designers in the 1970s. Vintage styles and international costume, experiments with length and shape, and hints of cross-dressing were some of the features of fashion. Film and television were crucial influences on style for both men and women. The women’s liberation, gay rights, and “Black Power” movements all considered the importance of appearance in the development and presentation of their respective agendas. Style tribes continued to develop as both politics and music influenced the eclectic nature of fashion in this particularly politicized decade. The designer’s touch was increasingly valued across all segments of the fashion industry. Top designers presented diffusion lines and licensing was widespread. Even moderately priced sportswear and jeans carried the imprimatur of leading names – creating the new category of designer jeans. The evolution of fashion during this decade reflected the coming of age of the baby boom generation, moving from playful individualism in the early years to a more materialistic maturity. Opposite An illustration by Steven Stipelman of loungewear for Women’s Wear Daily conveys a folkloric mood, one of the many themes of fashion during the 1970s. Right Yves Saint Laurent with models from a 1972 collection. Longer hems and a smoother fit on the body were indicative of the new decade. 305 Social and Economic Background Paul Davis’ poster for Ntozake Shange’s 1976 stage play For Colored Girls ... reflects the vogue for headscarves and the overall impact of African American style on mainstream fashion. The effects of a lingering and unpopular war in Southeast Asia, economic instability, and the recent memory of assassinations of prominent American leaders dampened the social and political climate of the United States in the early 1970s. The Wounded Knee incident in 1973, when followers of the American Indian Movement occupied the South Dakota town for seventy-one days, crystallized tensions between Native American populations and the US government. The Watergate scandal led to the resignation of American president Richard Nixon in 1974 and by the time the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the optimism and trust in the future that had characterized much of the previous decade had worn off. The OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) oil embargo that began in 1973 caused economic di culties throughout much of the industrialized world and culminated in gas rationing in Europe and North America in the late 1970s. Conflicts in the Middle East were frequent, and the 1972 summer Olympics in Munich were stained by the murder of eleven Israeli athletes by Palestinian terrorists. In 1978 the leaders of Egypt and Israel signed the Camp David Accords, promising peace in the region. Iran’s 1979 revolution installed a new leader, the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, and an extremist Islamist government. Around the globe, a series of high-profile actions by revolutionary groups – Symbionese Liberation Army, Brigate Rosse (Red Brigades), Baader-Meinhof group, Basque Separatist ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) group, IRA (Irish Republican Army), Front de libération du Québec (Quebec Liberation Front) – included kidnappings and murders. With the death of Mao and international recognition of the People’s Republic, including the historic visit by Richard Nixon, China took steps toward modernization. The communist revolution in Cambodia installed the Khmer Rouge government and brought about widespread famine and the death of tens of thousands of citizens. Expansion of apartheid restrictions in South Africa deprived the non-white majority of civil rights. The 1975 death of Francisco Franco resulted in more social freedoms for the Spanish population. The “Winter of Discontent” in the United Kingdom led to a series of strikes against the Labour government’s attempts at wage-freezing in 1978–1979. Aptly dubbed the “Me decade” by writer Tom Wolfe, this period was marked by various special interest groups demanding political and economic voice and visibility – adding to the sense of cultural disunity. This image of a society in flux was powerfully mirrored in the diverse, expressive fashion of the time. The Arts Artists including Vito Acconci, John Baldessari, and Joseph Beuys explored ideas through writing, performance, and other ephemeral actions and their work was labeled “conceptual art.” More permanent artistic monuments took the form of large-scale projects such as Christo’s Valley Curtains and earthworks such as Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty and Walter De Maria’s Lightning Field. Photorealist painters such as Richard Estes produced detailed images of modern life and Pop Art was still vital in the hands of David Hockney and Wayne Thiebaud. Feminist art offered alternative views and critiqued the predominantly male art establishment. Judy Chicago’s The Dinner Party presented a colossal display of overt feminist fervor. Graphic styles varied widely as many posters, album covers, and advertisements conveyed movement with flowing script and rainbow colors. Others featured an “Old West” aesthetic with muted earth tones. The first Earth Day was held on April 22, 1970 and the back-to-the-earth mentality was embodied by the ecology movement, which had its own flag and logo. Expo ’74 in Spokane, Washington, had an environmental theme, as opposed to other world’s fairs which emphasized technology. A handcraft revival, mixed with global sensibilities, contributed to the popularity of crafts such as macramé and batik and the continued use of tie-dye. But it was also the dawn of the computer age, as IBM’s innovations for business and Apple’s personal computers made the emerging technology a factor in design. Other new technologies that had an impact on daily life included pocket calculators, microwave ovens, and telephone 306 The History of Modern Fashion answering machines. Interior decoration and furniture design reflected both prevailing trends: a craft aesthetic was seen in abundant use of wood, shaggy rugs, and muted color schemes, while lacquered or molded plastic furniture in bold colors expressed the emerging high-tech look. A futuristic style pervaded the architecture of retail spaces. Skyscrapers thrust higher than ever, as the World Trade Center in New York, Chicago’s Sears Tower, and the CN Tower in Toronto were all completed. The high-tech aesthetic of Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers’ Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, was influential on later projects. Major exhibitions brought new audiences to museums and were influential on fashion. The elaborate, theatrical shows of historic and international dress mounted by former fashion editor Diana Vreeland at the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum were very popular. Highlights included Romantic and Glamorous Hollywood Design (1974) and The Glory of Russian Costume (1976). Treasures from the tomb of Tutankhamun, which toured internationally from 1972 to 1979, were repeatedly referenced throughout fashion, design, and popular culture, creating the second “Egyptomania” of the century. The spirit of the “Me decade” permeated best-seller lists. The self-help genre exploded with titles such as How to Be Your Own Best Friend (1971) and Looking Out for #1 (1977). One of the best-selling books of the decade was Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1970), Richard Bach’s motivational parable. Many popular works of fiction went quickly into film including William P. Blatty’s The Exorcist (1971), Peter Benchley’s Jaws (1974), Stephen King’s Carrie (1974), and Alex Haley’s Roots: the Saga of an American Family (1976). A particularly rich period in British fiction included continuing output from Muriel Spark and Graham Greene as well as works from new talent such as John Fowles’ The French Lieutenant’s Woman (1970), Mary Renault’s The Persian Boy (1972), Richard Adams’ Watership Down (1975) and Iris Murdoch’s The Sea, The Sea (1977). On the musical stage important works included Jesus Christ Superstar, which premiered on Broadway in 1971 and received many global productions during the decade, as did Godspell, another New Testament reimagining. The long-running and influential A Chorus Line opened in 1975 and Annie in 1977. 1978’s On the Twentieth Century strongly reflected the taste for art deco revival. The New York Shakespeare Festival’s production of The Threepenny Opera encouraged revival of Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht’s work. Evita premiered in London in 1978. The 1975 Broadway musical The Wiz was made into a film shortly after. Award-winning dramas included Travesties by Tom Stoppard (1974), Peter Shaffer’s Equus (1975), For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow is Enuf (1977) by Ntozake Shange, and Harold Pinter’s Betrayal (1978). A new generation of film directors pursued individual visions, including Woody Allen, Robert Altman, Peter Bogdanovich, Francis Ford Coppola, Brian De Palma, George Lucas, Martin Scorsese, Ridley Scott, and François Truffaut. Significant films reflected diverse subjects and moods including period pieces, nostalgia, and gritty contemporary realism. Landmark movies included Ryan’s Daughter (1970), The Last Picture Show (1971), A Clockwork Orange (1971), Day for Night (1973), Enter the Dragon (1973), Murder on the Orient Express (1974), Barry Lyndon (1975), Cousin Cousine (1975), Taxi Driver (1976), The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976), Allegro Non Troppo (1976), Star Wars (1977), and Alien (1979). However, new entertainment options challenged film as never before, most notably cable television, videocassette recorders, and video games. The association of popular music styles with fashion was particularly important. The American television show Soul Train premiered in 1971. It showcased dance music for a black audience and highlighted individual dance and fashion styles. The emergence of disco in the middle of the decade revived both partner and line dancing. At nightclubs such as New York’s Studio 54, Trocadero Transfer in San Francisco, Le Palace in Paris, or Montreal’s Lime Light, DJs mixed music to create endless dance sets The 1970s 307 The Jackson 5’s fashion-forward outfits c. 1970, including bright shirts layered under hippieinspired vests, were typical of the styling of Motown label acts. enhanced by gigantic sound systems and spectacular lighting effects. The permissive disco scene often involved heavy alcohol and drug use and a freewheeling attitude toward sexuality. The disco aesthetic was glamorous and dressy, sometimes tending toward futuristic, as seen in nightclub decor and the costume of some performers such as “Eurodisco” sensations Boney M. and Abba. Even the theme from Star Wars got a disco remix. Donna Summer, “The Queen of Disco,” scored major success with dance hits such as “I Feel Love” and “Last Dance”; her hit “Bad Girls” included whistles and a repeated “beep-beep” that captured life on the street. Other clothing trends were reflected in musical styles. American Judy Collins and British Cleo Laine maintained an artistic, bohemian look. Retro styling was embraced in the costuming, staging, and music of Liza Minnelli, The Manhattan Transfer, and The Pointer Sisters; retro icon Bette Midler even remade the Andrews Sisters’ wartime hit “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy.” Racial diversity was celebrated in the career of Cherokee singer Rita Coolidge and Cher’s mixed heritage was reflected in her hit song “Half Breed”; their performance wardrobe reflected their American Indian backgrounds. Fashion trends toward exotic orientalism were mirrored in the lyrics of songs such as Maria Muldaur’s “Midnight at the Oasis” and Amanda Lear’s “Queen of Chinatown.” Punk music emerged around 1974 in Britain in an atmosphere of revolt against mainstream conformity and popular music. Important British punk bands included Sex Pistols, The Clash, and Siouxsie and the Banshees. In the United States, The Ramones and Richard Hell and the Voidoids were among the best-known punk groups. The discordant music and nihilistic lyrics of songs such as the Sex Pistols’ “Anarchy in the U.K.” or Richard Hell’s “Blank Generation” were reinforced by punk’s visual message. Fashion Media New magazines that increased the spread of fashion included the celebrity-focused People, which debuted in 1974, and Essence, targeted at black women, which began in 1970. A number of prominent models pursued acting careers, including Twiggy and Marisa Berenson. Important faces included Lauren Hutton who, with her gap-toothed smile, projected a quirky glamour. Overall, the demeanor of models was happy, animated, and physically fit. Name recognition for models became more important and fresh-faced Americans, mostly blondes, dominated fashion media including Cybill Shepherd, Christie Brinkley, and Patti Hansen. Dayle Haddon, Shelley Hack, and Margaux Hemingway were especially known for their work with cosmetic companies. Following the groundbreaking career of Naomi Sims, other African American models gained prominence, including Pat Cleveland and Beverly Johnson, who became Vogue’s first black cover girl in 1974. They were followed by Somalian model Iman, who began modeling for Vogue in 1976. Diana Ross’ starring role in Mahogany (1975), the story of an African American woman who becomes a fashion designer, presented the world of fashion as accessible to black women. A new aesthetic in fashion photography was initially embraced by European magazines but infiltrated American and British publications by mid-decade. Images such as Helmut Newton’s photo of a model in a Saint Laurent tuxedo in a dark alley challenged the elegant look that had defined fashion. Newton’s work, like the photography of Guy Bourdin and Chris von Wangenheim, often included suggestions of violence and sadomasochistic sexuality and served as the inspiration for the film 308 The History of Modern Fashion e Jamaican German disco act Boney M. perform their hit Rasputin in la Russe -style costumes for a 1979 concert. CHIC ETHNIQUE As the 1970s began the Western world was captivated with global styles in a way that far surpassed the orientalist trends of previous decades and centuries. National Geographic and similar periodicals fed Western imaginations with images of exotic cultures. Hippie chic had blossomed into the couture ethnic and peasant styles of Thea Porter (with her glorious kaftans) and Giorgio di SantAngelo (and his rich gypsy chic). Mary McFadden, after living in Africa during the 1960s, was a keen collector of African art, and Zandra Rhodes visited Australia for the first time in 1971 and created the Ayers Rock print. By mid-decade ethnic and peasant styles were readily available throughout different market levels and in many variations. Peasant blouses teamed with flounced skirts were a fashion staple, and import clothing stores overflowed with options. Imported costume jewelry was absolutely essential to the look. Shifting international influences included Russia and China (particularly asserted by Yves Saint Laurent) and glamorous folkloric looks sent women to the workplace as citified peasants. Russian influence was seen in side-buttoning, band collars, and tunic-length tops bloused over pants. Ponchos and culottes, often teamed with suede boots, presented numerous women and schoolgirls as South American gauchos. The decades men would also have their share of such costumey styles. Blousy gauze and muslin shirts continued a bohemian hippie aesthetic, along with the ongoing popularity of dashikis. Djellabas were an option, even in long loungewear styles. The Russian influence was seen in silk Cossack shirts for evening or, for the most adventurous, worn belted during the day. Indian paisley patterns were more pronounced than ever before on neckties and adorned numerous shirts. Retail devoted to goods imported from Africa, India, and the Far East offered consumers a wide array of housewares. Western culture embraced global cultures in ways far beyond fashion and design. Spiritual movements, such as Transcendental Meditation and Krishna Consciousness, sprang forth from India along with yoga and paisley gauze bedspreads. Mainstream appetites in the West were also affected by a global mentality, as many tried such exotica as tabouli, baba ganoush, pita bread, sushi, and even curry for the first time. While the fashionable Western world was embracing global styles, other parts of the world were reacting to issues of traditional dress in distinct and different ways. During the course of the 1960s Queen Sirikit of Thailand promoted the adoption of a newly designed national costume for the Thai people, as the traditional styles had been virtually eradicated by the edicts of Prime Minister Phibunsongkhram in 1938. Drawing inspiration back to the Ayutthaya period, she and her dressmakers developed a variety of looks worn for diplomatic and festival occasions and she abandoned her chic Western wardrobe in favor of the new traditional. Other women of Thai society followed the queens example and adopted such fashions. Other countries strove to modernize their populations to keep up with a continuingly developing world, with attempts at legislating many customary adornment practices. Some tribal men in New Guinea, Indonesia, wore little more than the codpieces made of gourds (koteka) that had been part of their traditional attire for generations. The Islamic majority government based in Jakarta, nearly 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometers) away, sought to eliminate the indigenous, if immodest, style and launched Operasi Koteka ( Operation Penis Gourd ) in 1971. Operasi Koteka debuted with great fanfare in a ceremony attended by Indonesian First Lady Ibu Tien. Government workers went to the tribes and distributed t-shirts and shorts to the male natives, hoping to transform their wardrobes. But the men kept wearing the koteka and even purportedly fashioned the newly acquired shorts into turbans; Operasi Koteka was abandoned the following year. The s 309 Eyes of Laura Mars (1978). An alternative, more ethereal, mood was exemplified in other photographic work. Photographers Sarah Moon and Deborah Turbeville created mysterious, soft-focus images of distant and aloof models. Steven Stipelman, Kenneth Paul Block and Joe Eula breathed continued life into fashion illustration. The Elements of Women’s Fashion Opposite Emerging Korean designer André Kim is shown here with two of his models in 1979; Kim’s diaphanous dresses are typical of the overtly romantic trends embraced by Yves Saint Laurent, Oscar de la Renta, and many other designers. Below A Life magazine cover photo from 1970 caught an important moment of transition in fashion. The shopper – in her psychedelic print Pucci mini dress – contemplates a midilength peasant-style suede skirt, in an earth tone typical of the early 1970s. 310 The History of Modern Fashion Boutiques and smaller retail stores continued to thrive, and were selling more individualized clothing to smaller market segments. The acceptance of individualized tastes had become permanently established. Several trends that emerged in the late 1960s, including hippie, peasant and ethnic, retro, and unisex styles, dominated the fashion scene throughout the early and middle years of the 1970s. Rules of dressing that were established in the post-war period and challenged by the 1960s were now virtually eliminated. Casual dressing grew and divisions between afternoon and dinner or cocktail dressing all but disappeared. For the average woman, evening clothes became less formal; only the most important of social occasions called for designer glamour. Pants were more and more prevalent in a variety of circumstances. Along with the more widespread acceptance of women in pants came new, relaxed protocols of dressing and standards of modesty. Showing the continued influence of the youthful spirit and free-love ideals of the 1960s, t-shirts and tank tops became acceptable streetwear. For women, halter tops, crop tops, and tube tops without brassieres were accepted for leisure attire. The midi and maxi were slow to be adopted. They were initially rejected by women, who saw them as dowdy and matronly, and the mini lingered as retailers found the new lengths a hard sell. Unlike the 1947 edict of Paris for longer hems, this change was much more gradual and slower to be adopted by a reluctant public. The midi did not dominate until mid-decade, and the miniskirt, while waning, still clung to a place in the vernacular wardrobe. Hot pants, the shorts equivalent of the miniskirt, prolonged focus on the legs. For a few years, long and short coexisted; long sweaters and slim coats were worn over short skirts or hot pants. But by the middle of the decade the midi was established as the prevailing length, and the maxi was common for casual evening, holiday, and special occasion. The boxy silhouette of the mid-1960s was still available at a vernacular level, but the truly fashionable silhouette was softer, sleek, and closer to the body. Gores were sometimes used in the construction of the new longer skirts, giving the lower body a definition that had been missing from fashion since the pencil silhouette of the 1950s. Calvin Klein articulated a popular sentiment, saying clothes should be “easy and free, not stiff. When clothes are simple and beautiful, they permit the sense of the woman wearing them to come through.”1 In general, fashion was fluid and body-skimming with a fit defined by softness. Soft fit was sometimes controlled by cinched-in waistlines. Wrap construction was another important component to the sleeker fit, with wrap dresses and wrap skirts worn with contrasting tops. Many bias-cut skirts used stripes and the stripes formed a chevron. Sunray pleated styles were popular. Knit t-shirtstyle and shirtwaist dresses were popular at all levels of fashion. Trousers, in many variations, provided more fashionable options for women. Leading the way for other designers, Yves Saint Laurent continued to offer menswear-inspired pantsuits for women at the couture level, settling once and for all the question of the appropriateness of trousers in refined social settings. Pants styles included wide-legged bell bottoms, knickers, and gauchos, and, by decade’s end, narrow cigarette cut. Pajama sets were common for cocktail and evening. By the end of the decade, pants were wider at the top and often pleated, gathered or wrapped and narrowed at the ankle. In addition to the popularity of pantsuits, the skirt suit continued to maintain its place as a wardrobe staple. Often the styling of the jacket was quite masculine. In the later years, a wider shoulder line appeared in tailored jackets. Blouses were varied. In addition to fitted shirtwaist styles, many had cowl necklines or jabot tied bow fronts. Turtlenecks were also very popular. Along with the overt peasant styles, by 1976 more volume appeared in fashion. Fuller skirts were sometimes gathered, often tiered, or made with soft, unpressed pleats. Tops gathered more volume as well. Oversized tops and blouson styles were worn belted or sashed. Fuller sleeves were seen. Some smock styles were belted at the waist in soft materials such as cotton eyelet and challis. Knits were important in fashion and were frequently worn in layered combinations. Low belts and tight sleeves lent a slinky appeal to lean knits. As part of the move to more volume, thicker knits were featured after 1975, including thick ribbing, horizontal textures, cabling, and novelty stitches. For fall 1978, emerging Italian designer Gianni Versace even showed cable-knit trousers. Contrasts in color and fabric also displayed the contradictions and variety of the era. Under the influence of an ecological consciousness, one part of fashion moved into a period of earth tones, denim, darker hues, and heathered effects. However, brightly colored synthetic materials also continued in favor. Surface detail was profuse; oversized buttons and zippers, topstitching (sometimes called “jeans stitching”), ribbing, and patch pockets were prevalent. Trim, princess-line coats reflected the slender shape of fashion. Other options included man-tailored greatcoats, sometimes with wide lapels that showed early 19th-century influence. Car coats, knee-length coats and maxi coats were all worn. Belted trench coats took influence from vintage styles and were often worn with the belts tied rather than buckled. Shawls and ponchos were popular and showed ethnic influences. Patch pockets and piping were common details. The volume and variety of dress silhouettes after mid-decade spawned capes, burnooses, and other wraps. By the last years of the decade, more traditional coats reappeared such as polo coats, and double-breasted and single-breasted reefer styles. Leather and suede were particularly important both for casual styles and dressier looks. Some coats and jackets were trimmed in fur; fur bands at cuff and hemline evoked vintage and Russian inspirations. Fur was consistently fashionable, from short “chubbies” to long luxurious coats that were very full. Long-haired furs were especially popular and were dyed and tinted in a wide palette. German illustrator Hannelore Brüderlin depicted dress and vest ensembles in this 1976 fashion plate; the gored construction was a notable element of fashion. Lingerie and Loungewear A trend for going bra-less was noted, but even for those who still wanted support and/or a layer under their clothes, foundations were increasingly abbreviated and lightweight and often available in wide color ranges. Many styles had minimal seams to reduce visibility under clinging knit tops. Women’s underpants were available in brief, bikini, and high-cut styles. The “visible panty line” or “vpl” – a phrase referenced in the 1977 film Annie Hall – was a fashion faux pas. Tap pants were also worn, often with matching camisoles, with a vintage flavor. Bras, slips, and nightwear also often The 1970s 311 had a 1920s or 1930s look in pastel shades with bias cut, lace trim, and lace inserts. Slinky charmeuse lingerie camisoles with spaghetti straps were even worn as evening tops. Lingerie and loungewear represented an important fashion category. KayserRoth’s “King Tut” nightgowns (inspired by the Tutankhamun exhibition) and Emilio Pucci’s continuing designs for Formfit Rogers were accessible and distinctive examples of fashionable lingerie. Accessories Above Knit dresses reflect a relaxed quality; both feature a full sleeve gathered to a cuff. Right An ad for French hosiery not only exhibits chic stocking colors, but also depicts fashionable shoes, skirts, and hairstyles of the time, reflecting a 1930s-revival aesthetic. 312 The History of Modern Fashion The individualism of fashion was often conveyed through accessories. Boots, shoulder bags, and wide belts with hardware and lacing were among the most popular accessories. Wearing a hat had become a fashion decision instead of a social requirement. Hats in every conceivable shape were seen: berets and tams, masculine fedoras and trilbies, soft felt hats with wide brims, cloches, tight knit caps, even brocade Mongolian styles with pointed crowns and wide bands of fur. Shoes and boots were also very varied. Platform shoes and boots were often square- or round-toed but sleeker 1940s-influenced styles were also seen. Other popular styles included clogs, rope-soled wedgies, and espadrilles. Thin-soled boots sometimes showed Edwardian influence with lacing up the front. Several shoe brands emerged that exemplified ideas about ecology and ergonomics, including Earth shoes and Famolares. Frye boots, a traditional workwear style, were also widely worn. These eclectic and very casual styles gave way to more refined looks mid-decade including sleek flats and slingbacks with slender two-inch heels, and the pump re-emerged. Wider, more voluminous skirts and dresses called for a narrower, more feminine foot. Above left Qiana nylon blouses from 1977 exhibit two notable neck treatments of the mid- to late decade: the cowl neckline, and the jabot, or “tie neck,” style. Above right Three of the most emulated women of the decade, Farrah Fawcett, Kate Jackson, and Jaclyn Smith, the cast of Charlie’s Angels in its 1976 premier season. Fawcett’s feathered hairstyle was particularly influential. Early in the decade, legwear was textured and colorful. Legwarmers were sometimes worn as an element in knitted ensembles or with hot pants, even over jeans. Socks were worn rolled down, or visible under rolled-up pants with short boots. Anklets, some trimmed with lace, were worn with skirts. Bags ranged from large, soft shoulder bags to sculptured clutch bags, some with an art deco influence. Disco bags, small and often very decorative with metallic braid or tassels, carried evening necessities and were often worn on long straps slung across the body. Belts were sometimes worn loose around the waist, or below the waist at hip level, often used to form a blouson look. Sometimes worn in multiples, many had oversize grommets, studs, tooling, or fringe. Thin stretch metal belts defined the waist. Later in the decade, wide cummerbund styles and obi-like double wraps came into style. Scarves were worn in all shapes and sizes: long knitted mu ers, often with deep fringe; small silk squares knotted around the throat or worn as headwraps; big printed squares worn as shawls, sarongs, and bra tops. Gloves were decorative or worn for warmth but, as with hats, were no longer required for proper dressing. Jewelry was sometimes piled on in gypsy style with stacked bangles, multiple necklaces, and swinging earrings. Other jewelry showed the art deco revival or Egyptian influence, and a vogue for velvet chokers revealed Belle Epoque inspirations. Designing for Tiffany, Elsa Peretti espoused a cleaner aesthetic. She designed a minimalist gold mesh bra in 1975 that she said “is worn as a jewel, it has a good feeling on the body and it is amusing.”2 Digital watches introduced a new look and technology to timepieces. Eyeglasses and sunglasses were often extremely large, in circular, square, and oval shapes. Aviator frames were enormously popular. Hair and Beauty Early in the decade, the emphasis of make-up was to achieve a “natural” look. Lips were tinted and glossy, and powder eyeshadow was seen in many colors ranging from frosty blues to reddish and coppery browns. Eyelashes were not styled to the artificial look of the 1960s – a more spiky look was favored. Eyebrows were either plucked to thin arches, reflecting the 1930s influence, or worn thick and natural in the style of actress Ali MacGraw. Past mid-decade, more contrast was favored in make-up, with darker, smoky eyes, cheekbones defined by heavy applications of blush, and deeper colors for the mouth. New trends in fragrance emphasized decadence and sexuality, such as Yves Saint Laurent’s Opium and the many musk-based perfumes popular for men and women, such as Halston’s signature fragrance introduced in 1975. The 1970s 313 From Avon Family Fashions in 1977, male and female coordinating ensembles feature denim with graphic-patterned synthetic shirts. Hair was a major component of style and celebrity hairstyles were of particular importance. At the beginning of the decade, short gamine styles were banished as previously cropped models, such as Twiggy, appeared with flowing Pre-Raphaelite locks. Ali MacGraw’s long, straight, center-parted hairstyle in the movie Love Story (1970) was widely imitated. In the early 1970s, civil rights activist Angela Davis became an accidental fashion icon as her Afro (or “natural”) hairstyle became widely copied. The shag haircut, as seen on Jane Fonda and Judy Carne, was popular in the early years of the decade. Figure skater Dorothy Hamill popularized the “wedge” among young women all over the world when she won an Olympic gold medal in 1976. Farrah Fawcett sported her signature blow-dried feathered mane on the television show Charlie’s Angels. Shorter versions of feathered looks were also well established by mid-decade. Cornrows were already a fashion staple for black women, but when the white actress Bo Derek wore them adorned with beads in the 1979 film 10, she created a fad for the style among women and girls of all ethnicities. Gibson Girl-inspired top knots were also popular, often accessorized with combs or chopsticks. By the end of the decade, several styles were in fashion. Hair was often sleekly pulled back in a variety of chignons; permed curls became widespread, often side-parted, hiding half the face. 314 The History of Modern Fashion Denim in Fashion Swimwear by Halston was particularly chic, such as this asymmetrical style from 1977. Denim increasingly carried multiple messages and existed at all market levels. Jeans were worn by young people everywhere; they embraced the democratic message of the style. Vogue declared, “Levi’s, a pullover, marvelous belts, it’s the uniform of the world, the way we all want to look when we’re feeling easy, moving fast – a way of life.”3 Because they were worn by both men and women, jeans also represented sexual equality and cut across social classes. And as the fit evolved from workwear to fashionable cuts, this implication extended to sexual liberation. Hip-hugging styles emphasized crotch, thigh, and rear end, and jeans became an overtly sexy garment. Bell bottoms, sometimes so wide at the hem they were referred to as “elephant” pants, were worn long and trailed under heels. Some styles were extremely low-rise. The denim aesthetic evolved during the decade, moving way beyond blue denim trousers. Head-to-toe denim was one option: jeans were often paired with a waist-length denim jacket or worn with a matching denim shirt. Bib overalls were popular for men and women, often decorated and embellished. Denim was used for every conceivable wardrobe item, including boots in cowboy or laced knee-high styles that hugged the calf. For those who required a more “dressed” look but still wanted to participate in the trend, Yves Saint Laurent created a denim suit for his Rive Gauche men’s boutique in 1970, and Bill Blass and Oscar de la Renta also offered tailored denim menswear. Jeans embellishment was seen as an art form, celebrated in numerous books and gallery exhibitions. Tie-dyeing, bleaching, embroidery, patches, beading, and studding were initially popular effects but individually embellished denims gave way to expensive, status-symbol designer jeans. Partnering with manufacturer Murjani, socialite and artist Gloria Vanderbilt was a pioneer in this market. Calvin Klein added denim to his repertoire by 1976 but his real jeans success came two years later when 200,000 pairs of “Calvins” were sold within a week of arriving in stores. Even Studio 54 licensed a line, with its logo embroidered on a back pocket. By the end of the decade the fit had become so tight that some wearers went without underwear, throwing genitals and buttocks into focus. Other prominent brands included Jordache, Sasson, and Sisley – who all used edgy advertising campaigns and provocatively posed models to add excitement to the designer denim phenomenon. Active Sportswear A focus on fitness and exercise helped expand the market for active sportswear. Jogging suits and warm-up suits, often in cotton knit or velour, were popular with both men and women. Many people wore short shorts with elastic waists and contrast edging for sports, a style known as “gym shorts.” Athletic shoes started to emerge as fashion items, gaining momentum as celebrity athletes endorsed specific styles. Basketball player Walt Frazier endorsed the Clyde style by Puma, and tennis champion Stan Smith endorsed an Adidas model. Tennis wear was still predominantly white and, with its tight fit, reflected the lines of fashion. A number of prominent tennis stars provided fashion influence, especially Chris Evert, known for her polished fingernails and diamond bracelets. Blond and handsome, Björn Borg wore long hair with a headband and played in closefitting knit shirts and very short shorts. Styles from hiking and outdoor sports entered the general wardrobe. Flannel shirts and canvas field coats were very frequently worn. Nylon down-filled jackets and vests were popular and several companies sold kits for home sewers to make these garments. The Army Navy surplus store became trendy and shoppers found practical pieces such as parkas, paratroopers’ pants, and jumpsuits. Skiwear still followed the general lines established in earlier decades, with improvements seen in synthetic fabric technology. Rudi Gernreich proposed thong swimsuit styles for men and women, and the string bikini made its debut, but most swimwear provided a bit more The 1970s 315 coverage. Halston created striking one-piece swimsuits, often with an asymmetrical cut. Dancewear giant Danskin began offering swimwear in 1976 in a nylon–spandex blend that was especially clingy. Men’s swimsuits were available in many styles, some quite abbreviated. Bikinis and short trunks, some with laced-up fronts or sides, were available. Photos of Olympic gold medalist Mark Spitz wearing a stars-and-stripes Speedo swimsuit helped popularize the style. Tanning was still fashionable, but skincare was also a concern and the sun protection factor (SPF) index was introduced. The Unisex Style Above Unisex looks from many designers and manufacturers were popular; the “unisex” image was usually created by adding masculine elements to women’s clothing, with little change to menswear, as in these leisure suits from Marimekko from 1972. Opposite Vivienne Westwood, c. 1977, wearing a plaid bondage suit of her own design, accompanied by two London punk devotees. Below Jane Fonda in the 1971 film Klute with costume design by Ann Roth. Fonda’s role as a call girl inspired the identification “hooker boot” for her over-theknee footwear style, and her shag haircut was widely copied. Emerging in the 1960s, the unisex style truly came to fruition during the early 1970s; what was considered “unisex” was usually based on masculine dress. Yves Saint Laurent, whose pantsuits were instrumental to setting the trend in motion in the 1960s, continued to promote menswear styling for women. Rudi Gernreich boldly predicted in a magazine interview in 1970 that clothing would cease to be a function of gender; his unisex collection of that year included skirts, bikinis, and catsuits, even pasties, for both men and women. His kaftans, emblazoned with bold prints, looked not only futuristic but also, ironically, recalled T-shaped gowns of Jaeger and the loungewear offered by the Wiener Werkstätte. Finnish clothing and textile designer Armi Ratia at Marimekko featured “his and hers” leisure suits in vivid colors. Celebrity couples appeared in his and hers suits, and kilts available for both men and women took on a new mystique in this context. Socialite Bianca Jagger was associated with cross-gender styles. A French runway show at the Porte de Versailles in 1970 took the trend to an extreme, going so far as to send a man and a woman down the runway simultaneously in the same midi dress and matching heeled boots. Punk Fashion Male and female punk fans created a distinctive style. Both sexes combined elements of 1950s greaser styles – jeans, tank tops, work boots, leather jackets – made more aggressive through slashing, rips, and studs. Some clothing, especially t-shirts, displayed provocative, even obscene, images and slogans that expressed the hostile aspect of the punk movement, often rendered in a gra ti-like style. Sexual provocation was important to the look. Sadomasochistic references were common and garments included styles such as bondage pants and leather and vinyl apparel. The punk aesthetic also included extreme hairstyles, often spiky and disheveled, and multiple piercings and tattoos. New York-based band Blondie, with attractive lead singer Deborah Harry, offered a slicker, pop-infused version of punk style in music and fashion. The British designer Vivienne Westwood worked with early punk bands as the movement developed. While authentic punk was a street style, the look was rapidly adopted by fashion at all levels from the high style interpretations of Zandra Rhodes to mass-marketed t-shirts featuring bands including the Sex Pistols. Film and Fashion A wide range of films affected fashion. Ann Roth costumed Jane Fonda as a prostitute in Klute (1971), encouraging high “hooker” boots into the mainstream. The “Blaxploitation” films of the 1970s had strong impact, including Tamara Dobson’s stunning Giorgio di Sant’Angelo wardrobe in Cleopatra Jones (1973). The genre also encouraged African American male fashion icons. The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975) reflected punk and glam rock trends, and made its star Tim Curry an icon of gender-bending with fishnet stockings, corset, and provocative pearl necklace. Disco was glorified in Saturday Night Fever (1977); designer Patrizia von Brandenstein provided a white three-piece suit with open-necked black shirt for John Travolta that became one of the most emblematic fashion images of the era. The red dress worn by actress Karen Lynn Gorney featured a convertible neckline popular in fashion at the time. For Alien in 1979, John Mollo costumed Sigourney Weaver in a utilitarian jumpsuit that mirrored the garment’s crossover into fashion. 316 The History of Modern Fashion Right Tamara Dobson as Cleopatra Jones, with a vibrant film wardrobe by Giorgio di Sant’Angelo, helped sustain the continued popularity of the Afro hairstyle. Far right For Saturday Night Fever (1977), John Travolta wore one of the most iconic film costumes of the decade. Mia Farrow and Robert Redford, in Theoni V. Aldredge’s picturesque versions of 1920s styles for The Great Gatsby (1974), encouraged continued retro sensibilities in fashion. 318 The History of Modern Fashion Many period films encouraged retro fashion. Among the first was The Boyfriend (1971), a faux 1920s-style musical starring Twiggy, designed by Shirley Russell, which included “flapper”-style dresses and wild production numbers. Cabaret (1972), designed by Charlotte Flemming, provided decadent fashions of Weimar Republic Germany, and underscored the similarity between that time and the self-indulgent 1970s; images of a bowler-clad Liza Minnelli inspired fashion photographs and editorials. Smart 1930s fashions were featured by designer Polly Platt in Paper Moon (1974), and Anthea Sylbert in Chinatown (1974), and Edith Head in The Sting (1973) continued that decade’s influence on fashion design. In Lady Sings the Blues (1972) Bob Mackie and Ray Aghayan provided 1930s and 1940s period costumes for Diana Ross. A 1950s revival in youth fashion was encouraged by several films including American Gra ti (1973) by Aggie Guerard Rodgers, and Grease (1978) by Albert Wolsky, which provided inspiration for teenagers to dress for 1950s days in high schools and at college campuses. The revival was reinforced by the television series Happy Days (1974–1984) with its comedic 1950s setting. For Animal House (1978), set in 1962, Deborah Nadoolman Landis dressed a toga party, and spawned copycat toga parties among young people worldwide. Theoni V. Aldredge (1922–2011) was the most celebrated costume designer of the decade. The Great Gatsby (1974) provided men in white flannel suits, and women in beaded sheath dresses, and cinematic images that reveled in the clothes for their own sake; the film won Aldredge the Academy Award for costume design. For Network (1976), Aldredge costumed Faye Dunaway in sexy silk blouses that anticipated trends of the 1980s. The Eyes of Laura Mars THE ANNIE HALL LOOK Woody Allens Annie Hall was released in April 1977. The film provided the career-defining role for actress Diane Keaton, who took home a Best Actress Academy Award for her performance, one of the most engaging female screen characterizations of the decade. The film itself achieved classic status, winning three other Oscars, including Best Picture, and Keaton was awarded several other best actress citations including the Golden Globe and the British Academy Award. Keaton had performed on Broadway in Hair, and was known for her supporting role in the 1972 film e Godfather, but her appearance in the title role of Annie Hall made her a household name. Keaton wore distinctive clothing in the film, primarily outfits put together from menswear pieces. In floppy mens pants, jackets, and ties, Keaton conjured an image of the tomboy-next-door. Keaton wore many of her own clothes, and the Annie Hall Look was primarily derived from her offbeat fashion sense (just as the character was inspired by Keaton herself). Keaton followed the loose casual style of the bohemian denizens of New Yorks Soho neighborhood; the oversized mans fedora she wore in the film was borrowed from an actress friend. For her personal look Keaton cobbled together vintage and thrift store pieces, often menswear, including vests, dress shirts, baggy khakis, boots, and neckties, sometimes worn with long skirts. Keatons shy, enigmatic, selfeffacing, and often reclusive personality contributed to the mystique of the look. In the film, both Keaton and Allen wore pieces from their own closets by American designer Ralph Lauren, and Lauren was given a screen credit acknowledging his clothes. This prompted the fashion press of the time to erroneously credit Lauren as the creator of the look, neglecting Ruth Morley, the films costume designer, and Keatons contributions. Whatever its genesis, the Annie Hall Look had a huge impact on fashion as young women aped the style, even parroting Annies catchphrase la-di-da, and high school girls wore their fathers neckties to class. Magazines, store windows and catalog styling marketed the trend as it was embraced as a commodity by the fashion industry. The Annie Hall Look continues to inspire international runway collections and fashion editorials, referred to as El Estilo Annie Hall and Le Look Annie Hall among many other designations. New generations of female celebrities sporting quirky menswearinflected outfits are compared to her, while Keaton herself has become a perennial style setter, maintaining much of the spirit of the original Annie Hall Look. e Annie Hall Look as worn by Diane Keaton on the lm s poster. The s 319 (1978) was a quintessential film about fashion. The murder mystery thriller featured Dunaway as a fashion photographer whose violence-charged photographs included lavish high fashion clothes. Aldredge was also prominently featured on Broadway, and her costumes for A Chorus Line (1975) encouraged the trend for dance rehearsal clothes as street style and disco wear. Designers: France Below Vogue described Yves Saint Laurent’s fall/winter 1976–1977 collection as “the most appetitewhetting collection – not that a whole lot of women can afford to dress this way. But a whole lot of women are going to start thinking this way.” Opposite Yves Saint Laurent’s glamorous folkloric look was quickly adapted for the vernacular market, pictured here in a 1977 catalog. 320 The History of Modern Fashion An era came to an end with the death of Coco Chanel in 1971. While Parisian couture continued to provide exclusive day ensembles and special occasion dresses to a rarefied clientele, much of the excitement in fashion came from new talents who emphasized a livelier, more diverse aesthetic. Increasingly, the focus was on ready-towear and boutique brands. A much publicized fashion show at Versailles in November 1973 brought together five French houses (Saint Laurent, Dior, Givenchy, Ungaro, and Cardin) and five American designers (Bill Blass, Stephen Burrows, Halston, Anne Klein, and Oscar de la Renta) in a fund-raising effort for the restoration of the palace. The venerable but exclusive Parisian haute couture contrasted with lively American ready-to-wear and (perhaps unintentionally) helped build global interest in American design. Reflecting the new order, the models in the show presented a diversity previously unseen in high fashion. Ungaro, Givenchy, and Marc Bohan for Dior all maintained high standards and their collections received attention. André Courrèges offered updates of his futuristic looks, with a softer focus, and began to design menswear. Pierre Cardin successfully navigated fashion’s transition toward eclecticism and variety. He enthusiastically embraced knitwear and varied lengths, creating ensembles that attractively combined short and long. While his aesthetic was still quite experimental, Cardin’s emphasis on fluidity and inventive proportions kept his designs relevant. His brand exposure continued to increase through licensing and his signature men’s fragrance, with its phallic packaging, proved a best seller. “Saint Laurent Leads the Way” proclaimed Vogue in March 1973, and indeed Yves Saint Laurent was perhaps the single most important designer of the decade, influencing other major designers and the mass market alike. The 1971 collection inspired by the early 1940s included brightly colored fur “chubbies,” derived from the style of Parisian streetwalkers. The collection met with criticism, both for the references to prostitution, but also for the reference to the World War II years, a time that was still clearly a bad memory for many Parisians. Nonetheless the chubby emerged as a fashion staple. Several eclectic fashion elements converged in Saint Laurent’s winter 1970–1971 collection that included midi-length suede coats with folk art-inspired appliqués, Edwardian lace-up boots, and masculine hats. Saint Laurent’s 1974 smock coat and “naïve chemise” followed bohemian trends and were also widely copied. Saint Laurent’s highly influential 1976 fall/winter collection mixed a variety of ethnic inspirations, including Russian, Mongolian, North African, Gypsy, and Persian, with full skirts and sleeves, corset belts, turbans, and voluminous cloaks in luxurious fabrics, profusely trimmed: After years of beguiling women into austerely tailored pantsuits, now, in the cool age of less is more and casual is all, the world’s most influential couturier has stopped the parade with a collection of high-camp peasant fashions that are impractical, fantastical, and egotistical. They are also subtle, sumptuous, sensual and jubilantly feminine. The overwhelming first response ... let the costume ball begin.4 While ethnic inspirations had been in the fashion vocabulary steadily for several years, Saint Laurent presented the ethnic mode at its glamorous zenith, and by keeping the look alive, provided a foil for the more streamlined and simplified aesthetic that had developed in the decade. The impact of this collection was reinforced the following year with one of equal glamour inspired by Imperial China, with vibrant colors and luxurious silk, lamé, brocade, and fur, along with tasseled accessories and conical hats. The chinoiserie continued in the 1977 release of the provocatively named fragrance Opium, which was launched in an outrageous Asiatic theme party at Studio 54. Although only a few couture clients wore the actual runway looks, the companion Rive Gauche collections were popular, and Saint Laurent’s impact on mainstream taste was enormous. Living up to Saint Laurent’s philosophy that “women become beautiful when the artifice begins,” trends in make-up became more exotic with smoky metallic eyeshadow, and tassels decorated disco bags on dance floors. Mass-market retail and catalogs featured corselet-style bodices, bolero-shaped vests over peasant blouses, satin and brocade mandarin jackets, even frog closures on housecoats. Saint Laurent finished the 1970s showing a variety of inspirations, including Victorian and Edwardian looks, even Pierrot and Pierrette clowns (a popular decorative motif of the decade). His last collection of the decade was inspired by Picasso, with silhouettes that shaped the 1980s. Karl Lagerfeld (b. 1935) broke into fashion as a winner of a design competition sponsored by the International Wool Secretariat in 1954. Born in Hamburg, he was fascinated by fashion from an early age and went to live in Paris while still in his teens. He was hired by the house of Balmain and then worked at Patou. By the early sixties, he left couture and became a freelance designer for several ready-to-wear labels. Lagerfeld was named head designer for the French line Chloé in 1966, providing an update to their haute bohème style. Founded in 1952 by Gaby Aghion, the Chloé label emphasized free-spirited clothes. Stylish women ranging from Brigitte Bardot to Maria Callas wore the longer skirts, wide-legged pants and sophisticated peasant The 1970s 321 Dapper Karl Lagerfeld is shown here in 1973 with a model wearing a dress from his collection for Chloé, maintaining the label’s typical bohemian aesthetic. 322 The History of Modern Fashion looks, making Chloé one of the chicest brands of the 1970s. Lagerfeld also designed for other clients, including Fendi, and became known as a multi-talented designer who repeatedly found inspiration in the history of art. Knitwear featured prominently in the development of important new French brands. Parisian-born Sonia Rykiel (b. 1930) built her reputation with luxurious but unconventional knitwear, earning her the title “Queen of Knits.” During the 1960s, she designed for the Laura boutique and established her own label in 1968. She promoted adaptable layering pieces. Signature details included poorboy ribbing and seams on the outside of garments. Many ensembles were monochrome, in a Below left Sonia Rykiel’s inventive use of knits can be seen in the sweater and cap of this ensemble featured in Vogue, March 1973. Three-quarter-length pants with oversize pockets complete the ensemble. Below right The playful enthusiasm of this cowl-necked polka dot dress with its pannier-draped skirt from 1977 is typical of the energetic output of Kenzo Takada. Newsboy cap, wide belt, and crushed boots complete the look. sophisticated color palette of black, grays, and unconventional colors. A former couture model, Emmanuelle Khanh (born Renée Mezière, 1937) was a freelance designer during the 1960s who counted Missoni and Cacharel among her clients. She launched her own label in 1971 and opened a Paris boutique in 1977. Khanh offered a full range of clothing from slim knitwear to embellished peasant-style ensembles. Another important Paris-based brand, Dorothée Bis, was an offshoot of Dorothée, a trendy boutique established by Elie and Jacqueline Jacobson. Known for knit pieces during the 1960s, the label continued to produce distinctive knitwear often featuring layered ensembles that combined lengths and textures. The chain of Dorothée Bis boutiques focused on contemporary, often playful, interpretations of sportswear. Cacharel, founded by Jean Bousquet in the 1960s, established itself as a major label with soft blouses and dresses made of Liberty prints and feminine knits in the early 1970s. The romantic style of Cacharel was enhanced by its advertising, especially Sarah Moon’s photographs for the introduction of the fragrance Anaïs Anaïs in 1978. Two Japanese-born and trained designers were integral to Parisian fashion. One of the first male students at Tokyo’s prestigious Bunka Fashion College, Kenzo Takada (b. 1939) prefigured Japan’s influence on global fashion when he arrived in Paris in 1964. Designing as “Kenzo,” he opened his boutique Jungle Jap in 1970 featuring colorful, playful clothes. Some silhouettes were based on kimono and other Japanese styles, but Kenzo mixed patterns, colors, and textures freely, and experimented with knits. In creative mixes such as lean olive suede pants worn with a bright pink wool tunic, he achieved a style that fused elements of Japanese tradition and European high fashion. The 1970s 323 Issey Miyake (b. 1938) studied graphic arts in Tokyo at Tama Arts University and later in Paris at the Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne. He worked for Guy Laroche and later at Givenchy. Miyake went to New York in 1969 and worked as an assistant to Geoffrey Beene, but returned to Tokyo one year later where he opened his design studio. Miyake showed collections in New York and Tokyo in 1971 and in Paris in 1973, which brought him international renown. From the early days of his career, Miyake established a unique style based on his exploration of materials. His work often involved wrapping and tying and interpretations of traditional dress from around the world, such as a wrapped “cheongsam” dress and burnoose-style outerwear. Late in the decade, he pioneered the look of oversized tops over very narrow pants and leggings, with some pants bound at the ankle. Independent and original, Miyake asserted he designed clothes “to do whatever the wearer wants.”5 Designers: Britain Below left An early 1970s photograph by Herb Schmitz depicts model Ika Hindley in a typical dress from Ossie Clark, utilizing one of Celia Birtwell’s tulip-inspired prints. The style of the dress, the model’s hair, the long pearls, and platform shoes all make retro references to the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s. Below right A Biba fashion shoot, c. 1970, illustrates many of the label’s aesthetics: vintage inspiration, along with rich, dark “auntie” colors. 324 The History of Modern Fashion The vibrant fashion scene of London benefited from the creativity of several outstanding designers. Mary Quant’s achievements in fashion were celebrated in a 1973–1974 exhibition at the London Museum entitled Mary Quant’s London. At its height, the scope of her business included fashion, fragrance and cosmetics for men and women, toys, and even wine. Ossie Clark’s career continued until the middle of the decade and he retained his focus on innovative cut and often daring combinations of materials. In addition to ongoing work for Quorum he also designed for a French firm and for private clients including Mick and Bianca Jagger, and branched out into menswear. John Bates was one of the best-established designers in London. He managed to maintain a reputation for originality despite his commercial success. Another noted design talent, Bill Gibb (1943–1988), was credited with dresses that made his customers feel “enhanced and radiant”6 and espoused a very eclectic aesthetic. The success of Biba, established in the 1960s by Barbara Hulanicki, grew notably during the early 1970s. Biba’s advertising continued to play with the iconography of classic femmes fatales, and the clothing also continued its retro themes, with dramatic picture hats and gored skirts offered in a variety of lengths. The 1972 collection included an all-white wardrobe that conjured images of the 1930s “silver Twiggy, a prominent model of the 1960s and early 1970s, is pictured here in 1971 at Big Biba. The luxurious and striking art deco interior was widely copied in retail spaces during the decade, as the retro sensibility in fashion was mirrored by a retro sensibility in merchandising. screen.” Whimsical pajama sets were available, such as the “cats pajamas,” a set printed with cats that played on 1920s slang. The 1969 move to more stylish quarters on Kensington High Street was followed by another move, in 1974, to a seven-story former department store on the same street, built in the early 1930s in the art deco style. The Biba brand utilized the 400,000 square foot (37,000 square meter) space to expand to a department store concept: “Big Biba.” Women’s clothing, accessories, and cosmetics were offered along with menswear and childrenswear, housewares, books, and a restaurant. A roof deck was populated with live pink flamingos, and a theater presented glamorous superstar musical groups. The evocative “Casbah” floor featured Middle Eastern wares. Much of the store was decorated in a 1930s style, with vintage mannequins and mirrored surfaces, curved sectional sofas, potted palms, art deco figurines, and atmospheric lighting. The impact of Big Biba could clearly be detected in other parts of the world, such as the theatrical retail “happenings” at New York’s Bloomingdale’s, or the art deco interior design of the Galleria, an urban mall in Portland, Oregon (itself created from a vintage department store). The success of Big Biba was short lived as Hulanicki and Fitz-Simon’s business partners sold their interest, and the couple was edged out, as the new partners degraded the store’s look and vision, leading to its demise. Half-French and half-English, Thea Porter (1927–2000) was born in Jerusalem and grew up in Damascus. Her childhood in Syria, time spent in Lebanon as a young adult, and further travels in the area developed her deep appreciation for art and design of the Levant and the Middle East. Porter began her design career as a decorator, The 1970s 325 opening her shop in London’s Soho in 1966, selling exotic Eastern fabrics. She imported kaftans to cut up for throw pillows, but kaftans soon became fashionable in the wave of the ethnic clothing trends of the late 1960s. As her business grew, a Paris boutique was added. Her exotic expensive creations suited the decadent jet set of the 1970s and her varied clients included Elizabeth Taylor, Princess Margaret, Mick and Bianca Jagger, Begum Aga Khan, Jane Holzer, and Elsa Peretti. Her clothes were available in the United States at I. Magnin, Neiman Marcus, and Giorgio of Beverly Hills. She opened her own boutique in 1971 in New York’s Upper East Side, featuring kaftan-shaped gowns in rich colors and luscious fabrics, printed or brocaded in traditional motifs. Her interpretation of Eastern style included Asiatic jewelry and head ornaments, with cultural twists such as rendering an Islamic abaya in black chiffon. Laura Ashley (née Mountney, 1925–1985) was born in Wales and served in the Women’s Royal Naval Service during World War II. She began her business during the 1950s with her husband Bernard, working out of their home. Inspired by handcrafts that she had seen at the Victoria and Albert Museum, they hand-printed collections of headscarves and household linens. The print designs included geometrics, conversationals, and the florals that became the company’s signature style. The Laura Ashley brand expanded into clothing with smocks and full dresses that recalled Regency and Edwardian England, and bohemian “milkmaid” styles, usually in cotton. During the 1970s the expansion of the company was rapid and global, with stores in Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A San Francisco store opened in 1974, followed by a New York store in 1977. The same year, the company received the Queen’s Award for Export, and by the end of the decade the brand expanded into fragrance. Ashley’s styles influenced a wide range of designers, from Yves Saint Laurent to Jessica McClintock. Jean Muir (1928–1995) was born in London of Scottish heritage and showed an aptitude for needlework and art at a young age. Her earliest jobs in fashion were for some of Britain’s most historic fashion companies, sketching for Liberty of London, and developing a junior label for Jaeger. From 1962 to 1966 she designed the Jane & Jane label, where her jersey dresses were so successful that one was honored with the Above A fanciful ensemble by Thea Porter from 1971 mixes eclectic elements, including Central Asian ikat fabric. Right A frilly cotton dress and straw hat from Laura Ashley, 1974, are exemplary of Ashley’s 18th- and 19th-century inflected “milkmaid” styles. Far right A 1979 Jean Muir two-piece dress, with matching hat by British milliner Graham Smith and black pumps from Manolo Blahnik. 326 The History of Modern Fashion Dress of the Year award from the Fashion Museum at Bath. She created her own label, Jean Muir Ltd., with her husband Harry Leuckert as partner, in 1966. The focus of Jean Muir Ltd. was simple svelte silhouettes created with high-quality materials and construction, and subtle dressmaker details, frequently described as timeless, classic, and elegant. Muir did not slavishly follow trends, but rather her own restrained aesthetic. Her fluid designs suited the sleek mode of the 1970s; she showed in Paris, and Muir designs were available in paper patterns from Vogue and Butterick. Well known for dresses in black and neutrals, she also possessed a keen sense of color. Muir’s house model was the actress Joanna Lumley, and her celebrity clientele included notable actresses Diana Rigg and Charlotte Rampling. The Bath Fashion Museum honored her again in 1968 and 1979, and Muir received the Neiman Marcus Fashion Award in 1973. Turning street fashion into boutique business, Vivienne Westwood (b. 1941) embodied the increasingly important links between music and fashion. With her partner Malcolm McLaren, who served as manager for the Sex Pistols, Westwood operated a shop that evolved through the decade according to changing trends. It opened in 1971 under the name Let It Rock and focused on 1950s records and retroinspired fashion. In 1972 McLaren and Westwood renamed the boutique Too Fast to Live, Too Young to Die. By 1974 the shop was rechristened SEX and sold leather and rubber S&M clothing and pieces with “punk” details such as intentional rips, violent imagery, and provocative slogans. When the shop was renamed Seditionaries in 1976, it was well known for punk style. By the end of the decade, the boutique was known as World’s End and offered c...