23. Which of the following information should be provided in an informed consent form for any
study involving human participants?
a. the findings of the study
b. the number of participants the study plans to use
c. the procedures involved in the study
d. the names of other participants
31. Which of the following statements is false?
a. Validity refers to the results of a test not the test itself.
b. Validity progresses from low to high degrees rather than all or none.
c. A test can lack validity and still be a reliable measure.
d. A test can lack reliability and still be a valid measure.
37. Dr. Brown finds that results from different methods used to assess the same trait are highly
correlated and results from different methods used to assess different traits are not
significantly correlated. These results demonstrate which two types of validity respectively?
a. predictive and concurrent
b. concurrent and predictive
c. discriminant and convergent
d. convergent and discriminant
39. Which assessment technique is used in field work?
a. Likert scaling
b. Thurstone scaling
d. item analysis
40. Which of the following is NOT a component of a multiple choice question?
a. the stem
b. the root
44. A good cover letter for a survey questionnaire has all but one of the following characteristics
listed below. Which is NOT a characteristic of a good cover letter?
a. The initial questions are relatively simple, nonthreatening and easy-to-answer.
b. It is written on official letterhead.
c. It promises confidentiality.
d. It clearly states the purpose of the questionnaire and the importance of the study.
45. Which measure would be used to describe how far a test score is from the average test
d. standard deviation
46. In a set of scores with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 5, what raw score is
represented by a z-score of 1.00?
50. You are interviewing classmates to find out their political party affiliation. When you pick
the measure of central tendency to use in presenting your results, which should you choose?
52. The minimum or maximum value that one would expect the test statistic to yield if the null
hypothesis is true is an example of which of the following?
a. critical value
b. F value
c. t-test score
d. sampling mean
53. What can you conclude if the obtained value of a test statistic exceeds the critical value?
a. The null hypothesis cannot be rejected.
b. You made an error when calculating the test statistic.
c. The null hypothesis can be rejected.
d. Your obtained value is not statistically significant.
55. If Professor Columbo is interested in the general trend of research findings regarding infant
visual attention and childhood intelligence, what technique would be most amenable to his
a. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
c. Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA)
d. Factor analysis
56. What is the standard metr
57. Which of the following statements regarding statistical significance is FALSE?
a. The level of statistical significance and Type I error are the same thing.
b. Statistical significance is the degree of risk you are willing to take that you will reject
a null when it is actually true.
c. When your results are found to be statistically significant, you can conclude that they
will have a meaningful effect in the clinic.
d. The researcher can determine the level of statistical significance.
60. Which of the following statements is false?
a. A correlation of .8 may be interpreted as very strong.
b. The higher the correlation is, the larger the “jump” in explained variance.
c. A scattergram is a visual representation of a correlation between two variables.
d. The absolute value of the correlation coefficient is more important than the +
or – sign.
63. Which of the following could be a potential problem in conducting survey research?
a. information is collected over a short period of time
b. producing accurate results
c. getting a broad picture of what is being studied
d. response rate
72. Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the case study method?
a. It only reflects one reality and that one may reflect researcher bias.
b. Generalizability of the findings is limited.
c. It cannot establish cause-and-effect links.
d. It provides a rich account of what is occurring.
79. Which experimental design involves one experimental group and three control groups?
a. Solomon four-group design
b. pretest posttest control group design
c. posttest only control group design
d. quasi-experimental design
80. Why use nonequivalent control group design?
a. less cost
b. less time involved
c. easier training
d. because you cannot assign subjects to groups
81. In what design is the cause-and-effect argument strongest?
a. experimental design
b. quasi-experimental design
c. pre-experimental design
d. correlational design
82. In quasi-experimental research, when will the cause of differences between groups occur?
a. during the experiment
b. after the experiment
c. it has already occurred
d. it will never occur
84. If you want to answer a research question regarding whether a particular group of subjects
experiences any significant changes in behavior as they age but you do not have the time or
money for a traditional longitudinal study, which method would be acceptable?
d. None of the above would be acceptable.
87. When reviewing the problem and purpose sections of a research article, which of the
following questions would be pertinent?
a. Is the review recent?
b. Are the hypotheses clearly stated?
c. Are the results related to the hypotheses?
d. Is the objective of the study clearly stated?
89. When selecting a dependent variable, you should consider all of the following EXCEPT:
a. the measure has been used before.
b. the validity of the measure has been established.
c. the measure comes with testing forms.
d. norms are available, when applicable.
90. In a research proposal, what should follow the literature review section?
b. literature review
c. implications and limitations
91. In a research proposal, what should follow the implications and limitations section?
b. literature review
c. implications and limitations
94. Which section of a manuscript discusses the reliability of any tests that were used?
95. Which section of a manuscript discusses the general types of data analyses that were planned
and used in the study?
98. The hypothesis is most likely to appear at the end of which section of a manuscript?
99. What guidelines do most journals in the social and behavioral sciences follow?
a. Index Medicus
b. American Psychological Association
c. Society of Psychiatric Journals
d. Modern Language Association
100. What material is included in the abstract?
a. a one-sentence statement of the purpose
b. tables showing results
c. a list of sources that were consulted during the research
d. discussion of the important relationships between past research, the purpose of the
current study, the hypothesis and the results of the study