Healthcare research and stat Riddhi Patel Due on Nov 13 Develop the conclusion section of the research paper. Use the six steps listed in the weekly course content as outlined in the article How to write a Conclusion for a Research Paper as subheadings for your conclusion. Papers without the six subheadings will not be accepted. The conclusion as with other assignments must be in APA format. Minimum of one full page of content. Submit only the conclusion section. How to Write a Conclusion Section Co-authored by Christopher Taylor, PhD Updated: October 2, 2019 The conclusion of a research paper needs to summarize the content and purpose of the paper without seeming too wooden or dry. Every basic conclusion must share several key elements, but there are also several tactics you can play around with to craft a more effective conclusion and several you should avoid to prevent yourself from weakening your paper's conclusion. Here are some writing tips to keep in mind when creating the conclusion for your next research paper. Part 1 Writing a Basic Conclusion 1. Restate the topic. You should briefly restate the topic as well as explaining why it is important. • • • • • Do not spend a great amount of time or space restating your topic. A good research paper will make the importance of your topic apparent, so you do not need to write an elaborate defense of your topic in the conclusion. Usually a single sentence is all you need to restate your topic. An example would be if you were writing a paper on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, you might say something like "Tuberculosis is a widespread infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide every year."  Yet another example from the humanities would be a paper about the Italian Renaissance: "The Italian Renaissance was an explosion of art and ideas centered around artists, writers, and thinkers in Florence." 2. Restate your thesis. Aside from the topic, you should also restate or rephrase your thesis statement. • • • • A thesis is a narrowed, focused view on the topic at hand. This statement should be rephrased from the thesis you included in your introduction. It should not be identical or too similar to the sentence you originally used. Try re-wording your thesis statement in a way that complements your summary of the topic of your paper in your first sentence of your conclusion. An example of a good thesis statement, going back to the paper on tuberculosis, would be "Tuberculosis is a widespread disease that affects millions of people worldwide every year. Due to the alarming rate of the spread of tuberculosis, particularly in poor countries, medical professionals are implementing new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and containment of this disease." 3. Briefly summarize your main points. Essentially, you need to remind your reader what you told them in the body of the paper. • • • • A good way to go about this is to re-read the topic sentence of each major paragraph or section in the body of your paper. Find a way to briefly restate each point mentioned in each topic sentence in your conclusion. Do not repeat any of the supporting details used within your body paragraphs. Under most circumstances, you should avoid writing new information in your conclusion. This is especially true if the information is vital to the argument or research presented in your paper. For example, in the TB paper you could summarize the information. "Tuberculosis is a widespread disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Due to the alarming rate of the spread of tuberculosis, particularly in poor countries, medical professionals are implementing new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and containment of this disease. In developing countries, such as those in Africa and Southeast Asia, the rate of TB infections is soaring. Crowded conditions, poor sanitation, and lack of access to medical care are all compounding factors in the spread of the disease. Medical experts, such as those from the World Health Organization are now starting campaigns to go into communities in developing countries and provide diagnostic testing and treatments. However, the treatments for TB are very harsh and have many side effects. This leads to patient non-compliance and spread of multi-drug resistant strains of the disease." 4. Add the points up. If your paper proceeds in an inductive manner and you have not fully explained the significance of your points yet, you need to do so in your conclusion. • • Note that this is not needed for all research papers. If you already fully explained what the points in your paper mean or why they are significant, you do not need to go into them in much detail in your conclusion. Simply restating your thesis or the significance of your topic should suffice. • It is always best practice to address important issues and fully explain your points in the body of your paper. The point of a conclusion to a research paper is to summarize your argument for the reader and, perhaps, to call the reader to action if needed. 5. Make a call to action when appropriate. If and when needed, you can state to your readers that there is a need for further research on your paper's topic. • • • Note that a call for action is not essential to all conclusions. A research paper on literary criticism, for instance, is less likely to need a call for action than a paper on the effect that television has on toddlers and young children. A paper that is more likely to call readers to action is one that addresses a public or scientific need. Let's go back to our example on tuberculosis. This is a very serious disease that is spreading quickly and with antibiotic resistant forms. A call to action in this research paper would be a follow-up statement that might be along the lines of "Despite new efforts to diagnose and contain the disease, more research is needed to develop new antibiotics that will treat the most resistant strains of tuberculosis and ease the side effects of current treatments.". 6. Answer the “so what” question. The conclusion of a paper is your opportunity to explain the broader context of the issue you have been discussing. It is also a place to help readers understand why the topic of your paper truly matters. You should use the conclusion to answer the “so what” question because the significance of your topic may not be obvious to readers. • For example, if you are writing a history paper, then you might discuss how the historical topic you discussed matters today. If you are writing about a foreign country, then you might use the conclusion to discuss how the information you shared may help readers understand their own country. 1 Methods Section Riddhi Patel University of Memphis Healthcare Statistics and Research Professor Hughes September 25, 2022 2 Methods to Research Step 1 Research Topic: The dietary and exercise solutions put forth to help solve the obesity crisis The criteria I utilized in selecting the publications to be included in my literature review were not overly complicated but rather quite specific. The study topic impacted my choices for selection, and the research issue being investigated was whether the advice regarding diet and exercise that has been put forward to assist in solving the obesity crisis work. Beginning the process of collecting sources for a research essay is not always a simple undertaking. When I first started looking into this topic, I reasoned that it would be a good idea to start with Google and other widely used search engines, as well as brief and general summaries like those I could get from Google. I also thought it would be good to start with quick and broad outlines like those I could get from Google. This strategy proved to be the most efficient one in assisting me in locating the five research articles I needed for my literature review. I was able to do so with ease, thanks to its utilization. I considered the materials required for the project and the sources that would be regarded as "great" for my research subject. One of the most popular filters used in library databases and search engines is only to return "peer-reviewed" or "scholarly" results. These results were analyzed and approved by other academics before they were published. When determining what factors make a source "great," one should consider the question I am attempting to resolve. If I wanted to fight over the definition of a generally recognized phrase, I would find it helpful to consult a dictionary or Wikipedia. Because of the nature of my argument, I believed it was vital to primarily cite scientific articles that had been subjected to peer review and were located within the field of psychology. 3 Step 2 The authors of the articles for the literature review used secondary data analysis and experiments to collect the data presented in the papers. When conducting secondary data analysis, a researcher uses data acquired by another researcher, which has already been compiled. Analysis of secondary data allows researchers to hunt for answers to study topics that were not initially anticipated or to acquire a new perspective on an old question. Experimental research refers to a specific kind of investigation known as a study that employs a methodologically sound approach to the process of data collecting and analysis. A hypothesis, a variable that can be controlled, and additional variables that can be tested, calculated, and compared are the components that make up an experimental design. On the other hand, the environment where empirical research is carried out is entirely sterile. Step 3 After choosing which papers would be included in the literature review, I used various criteria to analyze the collected research articles. I looked for evidence and proof from experiments and the examination of secondary sources in the chosen articles to determine the credibility of the material that the authors offered. I also focused on topics in which the research questions had not been satisfactorily answered to construct a foundation of knowledge. When I was analyzing the articles for the literature review, one of the criteria I used was to look for any flaws in how the authors presented the concepts. In conclusion, I emphasized the information lacking in the articles so that I could lay the groundwork for additional research on the same subject in the future. 4 References Barlow, P., Reeves, A., McKee, M., Galea, G., & Stuckler, D. (2016). undefined. Obesity Reviews, 17(9), 810-819. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12431/. Church, T. S., & Martin, C. K. (2019). Exercise is the key to keeping weight off, but what is the key to consistently exercising? Obesity, 27(3), 361 361. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22429/. Langeveld, M., & DeVries, J. H. (2015). The long-term effect of an energy-restricted diet for treating obesity. Obesity, 23(8), 1529-1538. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21146/. Parr, E. B., Coffey, V. G., Cato, L. E., Phillips, S. M., Burke, L. M., & Hawley, J. A. (2016). A randomized trial of high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate diets, and exercise on body composition in adults with obesity. Obesity, 24(5), 1035 1045. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21451/. Shephard, R. J. (2018). Dietary choices and the control of obesity. Obesity: A Kinesiologist’s Perspective, 231-262. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429465550-11/.