Stack air emissions are gaseous, vapor, and particle-bound by-products of combustion. Facilities also have fugitive air emissions, which are released into the air from process points other than stacks (e.g., equipment leaks, wind-blown dust). The design of an incinerator, including waste and residual handling, largely determines the number of fugitive air emissions that might occur. Incineration facilities also generate solid and liquid residuals. These typically include wastewater from air pollution control devices and solid wastes, such as ash that remains in the combustion chamber and sludge that settles from wastewater treatment operations.
In a waste liquid incinerator, the alkali waste liquids are recovered, the organic waste liquids are thermally decomposed and the hazardous waste liquid is made nonhazardous. All waste must be thoroughly characterized before they arrive at the incinerator and their contamination levels are known before they can be treated.
Liquid wastes are stored primarily in tanks which have passive vents to the atmosphere. All vapors released from tanks first pass through Adsorption filters that capture volatile chemicals which might otherwise enter the air. The liquid wastes are piped directly into the incinerator, either to the rotary kiln or to the afterburner. In the primary combustion chamber, the inside temperature is at least 1580°F (temperature varies depending on the type of waste treated). This process generates gases which pass into the secondary combustion chamber for further treatment. The incombustible material in the waste leaves the rotary kiln in the form of ash which drops into a water pool and enters into the residual management part of the process.
In the secondary combustion chamber, some liquid waste is sprayed directly into the afterburner for treatment purposes. The organic gases generated in the rotary kiln are destroyed when exposed to the temperature of 2205°F for at least 4 seconds. . .