Test your knowledge of this chapter’s material by determining whether the following statements are true or false. Be sure to compare your answers with the answers on page 388.
1. Probation is the most popular correctional alternative used by the juvenile court.
2. The federal government requires that all probation programs be the same across states.
3. Electronic monitoring, such as the ankle monitor, can be an efficient way to socially control juveniles without having to keep them in a detention facility.
4. Research on foster homes suggests they might be detrimental to stopping delinquency.
5. Long-term secure detention facilities are linked to higher rates of recidivism.
6. Boot camps are the most effective correctional program for reducing recidivism.
7. Girls in correctional facilities who are characterized as overly sexual, aggressive, or incorrigible are more likely to be punished.
8. Controlling for type of offense, youth of color are more likely to be transferred to adult court than white youth.
9. Correctional facilities are required to have training and policies in place addressing support and resources for LGBTQ youth
1. The Supreme Court has concluded that juveniles are fundamentally different from adults and that there are several stages in the justice process in which their age and individual characteristics must be taken into consideration. But while the Supreme Court has determined that juveniles must be considered on an individual basis, the court has not given guidelines as to what should be considered. What do you think should be considered while making the determination to try someone as an adult?
Explain what the individual characteristics would have to be for a juvenile to be kept in the juvenile system. What would the characteristics have to be for the juvenile to be tried in the adult system and potentially receive a sentence of life without parole?
Source: Maleszka, J. (2016). “They call us monsters”: A powerful new documentary on juveniles tried as adults. Mass Appeal. Retrieved from http://massappeal.com/they-call-us-monsters-documentary-ben-lear-interview/
1. The adaptation above describes the death of Eric Perez in the Palm Beach Regional Juvenile Detention Center. The articles show that nine people were fired, but no one was indicted for the crime of his death because “Florida law does not address a death caused by neglect in a juvenile jail.” Discuss these decisions. Should a law have to detail the physical place that neglect occurred? Why might the law be interpreted this way?
2. If detention employees could be indicted, who should be held responsible? Only the medical worker? The guard(s)? The director of the detention facility? Every worker who came in contact with Perez while he was hurt? Why?
Sources: Adapted from Miller, C. M. (2012). As Florida teen lay dying, jail guards refused to call help, believed he was faking. The Miami Herald, October 19. Retrieved from http://www.miamiherald.com/2012/10/19/3057693/as-florida-teen-lay-dyingjail.html#storylink=cpy and Franceschina, P. (2012). Man died of brain injuries after 6 hours of neglect in juvenile jail, Palm Beach County grand jury says. Sun Sentine, March 9. Retrieved from http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2012-03-09/news/fl-detentiondeath-grand-jury 20120309_1_grand-jury-juvenile-jail-juvenile-justice
1. As part of a class assignment at George State University, students were challenged to spend 24 hours in an 8’ by 8’ box, to simulate the experience of solitary confinement. What other assignments could help people understand the psychological harms that accompany solitary confinement? Do you think you could spend 24 hours in an 8’ by 8’ box, if you knew you were getting out the next day? What if you had to spend 7 days? 60? 365?
Sources: Adapted from JJIE. (2016). Locked in the Box: Student Assignment—24 Hours in Solitary. Retrieved from http://jjie.org/locked-in-the-box-student-assignment-24-hours-in-solitary/251186/; Lutz, J. (2016). Stop Solitary for Kids: A National Campaign for Change. The Juvenile Justice Information Exchange. Retrieved from http://jjie.org/stop-solitary-for-kids-anational-campaign-for-change/163440/
1. The ability to construct an identity for oneself or others is a powerful thing. To put this into context, think about your own life and the identity you have for yourself. Does this identity come into conflict with others’ identity for you? Your family or friends? Work? School? How do you negotiate how you define yourself with how some of these others do? Are there consequences for these differing definitions?
Source: Sharma, S. (2010). Contesting institutional discourse to create new possibilities for understanding lived experience: Lifestories of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education. Race Ethnicity and Education, 13(3), 327–347.
1. Explain community corrections. According to research, which community correction alternatives are most successful? Which are least successful? Why?
2. Explain institutional corrections. According to research, which institutional correction alternatives are most successful? Which are least successful? Why?
3. How are foster homes/group homes/halfway houses used at the correctional stage?
4. Discuss the impact of race/ethnicity on the experiences of juveniles in the corrections stage.
5. How does gender impact the experiences of juveniles in correctional facilities?
6. Explain the experience of LGBTQ youth in correctional facilities.
Chapter Pretest Answers