Test your knowledge of this chapter’s material by determining whether the following statements are true or false. Be sure to compare your answers with the answers on page 180.
1. All critical theorists have an interest in understanding how social power affects human behavior.
2. The social critiques that emerge from the critical theories often inspire people to get involved in actions to alleviate social inequities.
3. According to labeling theories, stigmatizing youth after their first act of misbehavior is a good way to prevent them from engaging in secondary deviance.
4. Becker explained that people who are similarly labeled, whether they engage in the same activity or not, will experience similar outcomes.
5. Moral panics about crime and delinquency have resulted in the disproportionate labeling of white youth.
6. Conflict theorists claim that laws often reflect the interests of the working class.
7. According to DuBois, many acts of crime and delinquency can be seen as efforts to resist racial and legal oppression.
8. Some feminist theorists claim that the concept of intersectionality helps us understand the complex effects of race, class, gender, sexuality, age, and ability on young people’s behaviors.
9. Chesney-Lind and other feminist criminologists state that it is important to look at patriarchy, or male dominance in societal institutions, in order to understand girls’ lives.
1. Why might critical theorists support the creation and use of the new term, justice-involved youth?
Source: U.S. Department of Justice. (2016, April 25). The Departments of Justice and Housing and Urban Development to award $1.75 million to help justice-involved youth find jobs and housing. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/departments-justice-andhousing-and-urban-development-award-175-million-help-justice-involved
with any paper
Holsinger and Hodge conclude that their findings highlight insights from feminist and labeling theory. According to these theories, what can we expect from the girls who are labeled as troublemakers and surveilled due to their sexuality and/or gender identity when they are released from detention? Why?
1. How can labeling theory and conflict theory be used to analyze the topic of false accusations, coerced confessions, and unjust detention of youth?
2. In what ways do you think documentaries on specific legal cases influence their processes and outcomes?
Sources: Center on Wrongful Convictions of Youth. (2016). CWCY Spotlight (video lecture). Retrieved from http://www.law.northwestern.edu/legalclinic/wrongfulconvictionsyouth; Center on Wrongful Convictions of Youth. (2016). NationalOutlook: Laws Governing Youth (map). Retrieved from
1. How would a conflict theorist account for Cracka’s behavior and those of his CWA youth colleagues?
Sources: CBS News (2016, Feb. 12). Teen Who Allegedly Hacked CIA Chief’s AOL Account in Custody. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/cracka-teen-hacker-cia-director-john-brennan-aol-email-account-custody; Franchesci-Bicchierai, L., & Cox, J. (2016, Feb. 12). Teen Allegedly Behind CIA, FBI Breaches: “They are trying to ruin my life.” Motherboard News.
Retrieved from http://motherboard.vice.com/read/uk-police-arrest-teenage-hacker-cia-john-brennan-fbi-cyberattacks; Perez, E. (2016, Feb. 12). First on CNN: British Police Nab Alleged ‘Crackas’ Hacker. CNN News. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2016/02/11/politics/fbi-british-police-crackas-hacker/
1. As the Equity Project points out, heterosexism and homophobia can have disastrous results for LGBT youth. Looking back over the course of your teenage and childhood years, what are some experiences that you can now recognize as involving heterosexism and/or homophobia affecting young people? Were there adults who actively addressed these forms of oppression either before or after they occurred? How did the individuals who were targeted respond? In delinquency? What
are some groups in your local area that do work similar to that of the Equity Project?
1. Labeling theorists’ fundamental concern is with secondary deviance rather than primary deviance. What are the strengths and weaknesses of this approach? What other theory do you think would work well with labeling theory to explain primary deviance? Why?
2. Several conflict theories of crime and delinquency were discussed in this chapter. Which one do you think best addresses delinquency today? Explain what elements of the theory made you choose it.
3. The idea of intersectionality is central to many feminist theories today. What does the concept signify? How does the application of this concept help us better understand the experiences of a particular young person?
4. Critical theorists often see youth’s involvement in delinquency as a form of resistance against unjust treatment. What do you think of this proposition? Can you think of examples when resistance is related to delinquency? Can you think of examples in which resistance does not explain delinquency? List your examples.
5. In what ways do labeling, conflict, and feminist theories address power disparities? Which approach do you find the most compelling?
Chapter Pretest Answers