Test your knowledge of this chapter’s material by determining whether the following statements are true or false. Be sure to compare your answers with the answers on page 122.
1. The social contract is the agreement that citizens will follow the rules and laws of society in exchange for protection from harm.
2. According to Beccaria, in order for punishment to work it must be certain, swift, and fair in its severity.
3. The earliest biological theories of crime and delinquency focused on the size and shape of the head to predict bad behavior.
4. Excessive toxins, such as lead, have been linked to delinquency.
5. Poor children and children of color are more likely to be exposed to toxins such as lead.
6. According to differential association theory, it is most likely a juvenile will learn delinquent behavior from a friend.
7. Social bonds keep juveniles from engaging in delinquency.
8. According to Agnew, a coping mechanism for strain may be delinquency.
9. According to Broidy and Agnew, boys and girls may have different issues that trigger strain.
1. Analyze how this mother reached out to talk about her concerns about her son. How did social media help her (and others)? How might it have hurt her (or others)? What does it say about contemporary society that this was the venue she had readily available for her concerns?
Sources: Adapted from Long, L. (2012, December 14). Thinking the Unthinkable. The Anarchist Soccer Mom. Retrieved from
http://anarchistsoccermom.blogspot.com; NPR. (2016, April 24). How Talking Openly Against Stigma Helped a Mother and Son Cope with Bipolar Disorder. Weekend Edition Sunday. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/04/24/475461959
1. If there are increased rates of delinquency in Flint in 10 years, should these children be held accountable for their behavior, or should it be understood that the water crisis is the real offender? Why or why not?
Source: Adapted from Kennedy, M. (2016, April 20). Lead-Laced Water in Flint: A Step-by Step Look at the Making of a Crisis. The Two-Way: Breaking news from NPR. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/04/20/465545378
1. Which theory is best represented in this article? Use examples from the article to illustrate.
Source: Posnick-Goodwin, S. (2012). Helping girls make better choices. California Teachers Association, 16(6). Retrieved from http://www.cta.org/en/Professional Development/Publications/2012/03/March-Educator-2012/Helping-girls.aspx Reprinted by
permission of the California Teachers Association.
How might schools help decrease strain for American Indian youth?
Source: Eitle, D. & McNulty Eitle, T. (2016). General strain theory and delinquency: Extending a popular explanation to American Indian youth. Youth & Society, 48(4): 470–495.
1. “If brain capacity and function is still developing, with frontal lobes developing last, can we hold adolescents responsible for uninhibited, anti-social behavior?”93
2. Thinking about the process of differential association, can you give an example from your life of your associations affecting your likelihood to engage in, or not engage in, delinquency?
3. Which of the social bonds do you think is most important for preventing delinquency? Why?
4. Can you identify three strains/stressors that existed in your middle school or high school that you or other students experienced? Do you think that all students experienced these strains equally? Why or why not?
5. Create a community program to prevent delinquency based on differential association, social control, or general strain theory.
6. Evaluate the process of confining juveniles in detention/correctional facilities using the theories in this chapter. Would any of these theories advocate for detention facilities as a preventative measure for delinquency? Explain why or why not.
Chapter Pretest Answers