Test your knowledge of this chapter’s material by determining whether the following statements are true or false. Be sure to compare your answers with the answers on page 418.
1. Comprehensive programs that address multiple factors, including laws and institutional practices that funnel the most vulnerable youth in our society into the juvenile justice system, are not effective and cost-saving over the long run.
2. Preventative efforts deemed among the least effective include screening and early intervention practices and programs, early education approaches, and after-care programs and mentoring.
3. The school-to-prison pipeline is inversely related to the educational pipeline.
4. Rehabilitation tends to be focused on the individual and is heavily influenced by psychological and social-psychological theories of human development.
5. The involvement of mental health personnel in program delivery, in-depth programming that lasts a sufficient amount of time to be useful, and behavior- or skill-based content are factors that lead to the most effective rehabilitation programs.
6. The development of self-regulation skills allows youth to control the behavior of those around them in order to avoid abuse, neglect, and violence.
7. In restorative justice, accountability or taking responsibility for delinquency is often thought to be necessary not for the young people who commit acts of delinquency, but for society as a whole.
8. Restorative justice practices that are no longer used with young people include Victim-Offender Mediation, Family Group Conferencing, and restorative circles.
9. Because youth who participate in restorative justice programs are often less likely to recidivate than those who do not, it is important to provide access to restorative alternatives to youth from all racial and ethnic groups.
1. What are some other legal changes that could reduce the number of youths who are formally labeled as delinquents and/or criminals?
Source: Andersen, A. (2015). Attorney dismisses injunctions against two Oakland gangs. KRON4. Retrieved from http://kron4.com/2015/03/06/attorney-dismisses-injunctions-against-two-oakland-gangs/
How prevalent is the commercial sex trafficking of juveniles in your area? Do some online research to help you answer this question. What can be done to prevent the exploitation and victimization of young people in the sex trade?
Source: Salisbury, E. J., Dabney, J. D. & Russell, K. (2015). Diverting victims of commercial sexual exploitation from juvenile detention: Development of the InterCSECt Screening Protocol. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(7), 1247–1276.
1. Do you know people who would benefit from having their juvenile records expunged? If so, would you feel comfortable pointing out that they should look for online resources or legal aid to help them seal their records? Why or why not?
1. Are the needs of Asian and Pacific Islander youth addressed by community agencies in your area? Take a few minutes to research this online and see what you discover.
Sources: Community Youth Center. (2016). Who we are. Retrieved from http://cycsf.org/about.php; National Council on Crime and Delinquency. (2007). Promising approaches: A nationwide resource guide to Asian/Pacific Islander youth organizations and programs (pp. 54–55). Reprinted with permission from the National Council on Crime and Delinquency.
1. In this chapter, we have highlighted some of the most effective methods of prevention and rehabilitation. Others that researchers have deemed to be ineffective have not been included but may include some of the methods of punishment that you have heard about in popular discussions about juvenile delinquency. What are some other approaches to juvenile misbehavior that you thought might be classified as rehabilitative or preventative? Analyze what you know about these approaches. Are they actually aimed more at getting tough on juvenile delinquency than at bringing about meaningful change?
2. Restorative justice advocates frequently discuss the concept of accountability as a means of preventing and reducing juvenile delinquency and crime in general. Accountability is seen not just as accountability on behalf of juvenile offenders but as accountability on behalf of the greater communities that create the conditions that encourage delinquency and crime. How does
broadening the concept of accountability affect the ways that we should go about pursuing delinquency prevention and rehabilitation.
3. Many of the methods and programs that researchers have found to be the most effective for individual youth who have engaged in delinquency are therapy based. Pick one of the types of therapies discussed and consider its breadth. How does it attempt to influence change on the individual level? Does it attempt to address the familial level? What about the community level? Are there social or legal factors that affect these types of change as well? Discuss the implications of your answers and what they mean for juvenile delinquency prevention and rehabilitation efforts.
4. Consider how laws and policies shape juvenile prevention, rehabilitation, and restorative justice efforts. How can youth advocates and juvenile justice reformers best influence change at that level?
5. In this book as a whole, we have focused on juvenile delinquency in a diverse society. Consider your own social location—race, ethnicity, social class, gender, sexuality, ability levels, age, and nationality—and think about what type of program or practice would have best addressed the reasons why you engaged in an act of delinquency, or a series of acts of delinquency, in your teenage
years. (If you are the rare person who never did anything that could have been labeled delinquent if discovered, think about someone else’s social location and life experiences instead.) How did your social world affect your choices? What would you have liked to have known back then, or what resources would you have liked to have had that might have made a difference in your decision-making?
Chapter Pretest Answers