Test your knowledge of this chapter’s material by determining whether the following statements are true or false. Be sure to compare your answers with the answers on page 245.
1. Academic achievement has been decreasing in the United States since 1971.
2. Girls show higher reading scores than boys at all ages and during all years.
3. In 2015, whites were the most proficient in math and reading across all racial and ethnic groups.
4. The educational system is primarily budgeted for at the federal level.
5. Dropping out is correlated to the likelihood to engage in delinquent behavior and delinquent behavior is correlated to the likelihood to drop out.
6. Total number of homicides on campus has been increasing since 1992.
7. Blacks are most likely to be threatened or injured with a weapon on school property.
8. The school-to-prison pipeline is the argument that for some students, school becomes a preparation ground for prison.
9. Zero-tolerance policies first focused on youth who brought firearms to campus
1. This news article illustrates the criminalization of such behaviors as skipping school (truancy) that, in the past, were more often considered status offenses. Are there benefits to treating truancy as a crime? Are there drawbacks to it? How far should an authority figure (police officer, teacher) go to stop truancy?
Source: Adapted from Report: 9-year-old who skipped school is Tasered. (2012). U.S. News on NBCNews.com, March 13. Retrieved from http://usnews.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2012/03/13/10669114-report-9-year-old-who-skipped-school-is-tasered
We can do it today.
This study suggests that when white middle- or upper-class youth engage in violence, it is seen as a senseless, extraordinary act that is both fascinating and in need of explaining. Violence from youth of color and poor youth is presented as expected and not in need of explaining (although may be in need of documenting). Can you find more examples of juvenile violence in the media in which the white juvenile violence is presented as senseless and the juvenile-of-color violence is framed as
expected or easy to understand?
1. Instead of passing a law, how might schools help to protect teachers from online bullying from their students?
Source: Choney, S. (2012). Cyberbullying law protects teachers from students. NBC News, Technology, September 21. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/technology/technolog/cyberbullying-law-protects-teachers-students-1B6029252
1. Thinking of your own high school experience, what were the discipline policies at your school? Did your school have policies and practices that addressed discrimination? Were they well known? Were students, parents, guardians, and the community welcomed to participate in school decisions?
Source: Reprinted by permission of Dignity in Schools: http://www.dignityinschools.org
1. What is the relationship between gender, race, and academic achievement in the United States? How might the issues of tracking and alienation impact these differences in academic achievement?
2. How might educational budgets impact the school experience and juvenile delinquency?
3. Explain the impact of bullying and cyberbullying on school campuses. Who is most likely to be bullied or cyberbullied? How might schools go about addressing the issues of bullying?
4. The members of your local school board have announced that they are very worried about school shootings on local middle school and high school campuses. For this reason, they have decided to increase school security, with metal detectors and armed security guards for each of the schools in the district. Given what you have learned in this chapter, comment on the school board’s plan
Chapter Pretest Answers