Jose A Valdes Muguercia
Critique the Theory of Self-Efficacy Using the Internal and External Criticism
Overview of the Self-Efficacy Theory
Self-efficacy was conceptualized by Albert Bandura and is a subset of the social cognitive theory. The self-efficacy concepts postulate that humans have control over their actions and behaviors. In this regard, all humans have the capabilities and capacities to be successful, provided they have self-efficacy and the opportunities to pursue their goals. Hence, the level of self-efficacy is influenced by both internal and external factors (Ramachandran, 2012). The internal factors relate to personal motivation and self-belief, while the external factors relate to access to opportunities to attain the set goals. Thus, individuals who report better outcomes are not necessarily better than those struggling but have access to opportunities and models for high self-efficacy. Hence, in the presence of opportunities, positive social persuasion, and reinforcement models, individuals can attain high levels of self-efficacy.
Internal and External Criticism
Internal criticism focus on how the internal construct of the theory fits together, while external criticism focuses on the relationship between the theory, people, and nursing. Thus, from the internal complaint, Peterson & Bredow (2020) argued that clarity, logical development, level of theory development, and consistency are to be prioritized. Based on this premise, the self-efficacy theory is straightforward to understand by the reader. Hence, the theory fits the clarity criteria due to the simplicity of the theory. Concerning logical consequence, the theory originated from the cognitive theory, the tools to measure self-efficacy have equally developed, notably bandura self-efficacy tool is in existence and can be used to test for the theories concepts. Besides, the conclusion concerning human behaviors is equally logical.
The theory equally accounts for the subject matter under consideration. At the same time, the study finding by Ramachandran (2012) supports the notion that the theory does not have gaps that require further modifications. Concerning consistency, the outcome efficacy and self-efficacy have been explained throughout the theory. But, as per Bandura, the outcome and the self-efficacy concept differ. In this regard, the association between the outcome and self-efficacy is not consistent with Bandura’s conceptualization of the theory (Shorey & Lopez, 2021). Concerning the level of the theory, self-efficacy is a middle-range theory due to the few concepts and the potential for generalization.
Making a judgment on whether a theory can be used for nursing research also requires an evaluation of the theory by focusing on external criticism. The component of interest relates to complexity. In this case, the self-efficacy theory uses human agency and self-efficacy to explain the theory, which does not require lengthy descriptions (Shorey & Lopez, 2021). Concerning the aspect related to discrimination, the theory can produce hypotheses regarding human behaviors that can be used to undertake nursing research. Besides, the theory’s underlying assumption holds and reflects the real-world situation. In particular, as per Ramachandran (2012), access to opportunities and reinforcement models are the primary differentiation between positive and negative behaviors. The theory is equally pragmatic and significant in nursing practice since the hypothesis accrued from the theory of crucial importance in nursing practice, while the utility of the theory can be used across different nurse settings.
Peterson, S. J., & Bredow, T. S. (2020).
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Health Promotion in Health Care – Vital Theories and Research, 145–158. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-63135-2_12
Gustavo Manrique Pico
Number of replies: 2
The purpose of this discussion is to evaluate the self-efficacy theory using the same internal and external criticism processes that were used to evaluate the middle range theories. As a crucial component of nursing research, it is completely obvious that theories must be evaluated in order to determine their scientific validity (Meleis, 2011).
The Self-efficacy theory is a middle-range theory that predicts health behavior change and health maintenance (Carpenito, 2009). It has been extensively studied in nursing and education to provide an in-depth understanding of its applicability and to focus on clinical aspects of care, training, nursing practice, and competence.
In order to give a comprehensive grasp of the theory’s applicability, the idea of self-efficacy has been the subject of substantial research and analysis in a variety of nursing and education fields. Self-efficacy is utilized in nursing education to connect theory and practice, teach clinical skills, foster critical thinking, and help students perform well in school.
The self-efficacy theory, which is in the middle range of theories, can be judged using the ideas of internal and external criticism.
Internal critique may be used to analyze not just how the theory’s clarity is addressed but also its level of logical, adequate, and consistent development (Barnum, 1998). This theory can be explained clearly so that standard criteria, interpretations of results, and ideas can be used in nursing and in a variety of health care settings (Barnum, 1998).
Instead, external critique examines external factors, demanding an exploratory examination of how individuals perceive collective effectiveness. Complexity, discrimination, reality convergence, pragmatism, relevance, and usefulness can be successfully employed. So, external critique can be used to study self-efficacy because, like most middle-range theories (Barnum, 1998), it has a consistent and logical conceptual framework.
Attaallah et al. (2021) also say that this theory could be used in nursing practices that are less abstract and are meant to change how people with chronic diseases act.
Bandura (2019) focused on the four primary factors that contribute to one’s sense of self-efficacy: first, mastering barriers as mastery builds coping abilities and threat control; second, by watching social models and other people who do similar things well, because these things have the biggest impact on how well something works; the third factor is how sure they are that they have the skills they need to be successful; and fourth, by correcting their negative emotions and misinterpreting their physical conditions.
Bandura (1986) affirms that a person’s physiological condition can be influenced by their level of self-efficacy if they interpret their somatic symptoms based on unpleasant arousal. But later, Bandura (1995) said that self-efficacy and outcome expectations are affected not only by behavior but also by verbal reassurance, critical reflection, biological sensations, and involvement or self-modeling. Therefore, when this behavior works well, it reinforces self-efficacy demands.
Essential to self-efficacy is the cognitive function that enables people or patients to anticipate the occurrence of events and exert control over those that impact their daily lives (Klassen & Klassen, 2018).
According to the theory’s premise that people have distinct roles in generating behavioral change (Bandura, 2004), self-efficacy plays a crucial role in predicting behavior change both directly and indirectly through its effects on the other determinants. However, the majority of research agrees that measures of self-efficacy that are relevant to a task are preferable to measures of self-efficacy that are more generalized (Bandura, 2019).
Attaallah et al. (2021) say that psychological and social support have a direct effect on how patients with a chronic condition will do in the future.
It has been demonstrated by Joo & Heeyoung (2022) that the self-care theory is a reliable and trustworthy instrument that can be implemented in the treatment of osteoporosis patients.
In conclusion, the concept of self-efficacy has played a significant role in not only predicting individual physical and psychological wellbeing, competencies, and self-care management, but also serving as a theoretical framework for existing clinical and educational interventions. The idea of self-efficacy has also been used to predict people’s physical and mental health, their skills, and how well they take care of themselves (Haugan & Eriksson, 2021).
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