Marlies Melgarejo Valeron
Self-efficacy theory is a concept that believes individuals can practice behaviors appropriate to attain various performances (Lippke, 2020). Self-efficacy theory in nursing practice is based on how healthcare practitioners relate with other stakeholders in the sector. For instance, nurses need to exude confidence so that the patients can have confidence in their practice and thus improve patient outcomes. Nurse practitioners also need to be updated on current effective practices. It would be difficult for nurses to interact with patients who have less confidence in them and believe that the nursing procedures they have recommended will help improve patient outcomes. In the management of long-time illnesses, self-efficacy theory is important as it helps patients adopt a behavior that will improve their health outcomes. For instance, patients going for dialysis can be non-compliant which affects their healthcare outcomes. However, when they persevere the discomforts associated with dialysis sessions, for instance, nurses can successfully manage long-term diseases.
External criticism of the theory is that psychological procedures play an important role in adopting a certain behavior. In predicting behavior change, psychological procedures help one to establish if an individual will believe that being told to change his or her behavior will lead to better health results (Agner, 2018). Research has established that in the process of healthcare practitioners dealing with patients who are noncompliant with treatment, it is vital to adopt cognitive behavior theory which helps in changing the behavior of patients. Self-efficacy theory is based on CBT which is used in different nursing practices, especially when dealing with patients with terminal illnesses (Beauchamp et al., 2019). The reality is that when patients doubt the efficacy of the procedure recommended, they will easily give up on the attempts to change their behavior. However, the patients with stronger self-efficacy, work hard and put in the required effort including change of behavior to achieve the desired health outcomes.
The theory explains why many patients who are successful in their treatment narrate how the process was challenging but they had to overcome the challenges to achieve the desired healthcare outcomes. There are, however, different levels of self-efficacy. A nurse practitioner ought to use the theory of self-efficacy in providing personalized care based on each patient’s self-efficacy capabilities (Stewart, 2021). This will result in better patient outcomes as the theory will be effective. Self-efficacy theory is considered narrow and therefore less applicable in nursing practice. The limitations of the theory include the fact that each patient has a different expectation of outcome while the level of self-efficacy is not the same. It is challenging to define self-efficacy when there is no proper reference to the expected result. The theory also ignores the role of the environment which is key to self-efficacy. Understanding that change in the behavior of a patient is dependent on the environment is essential while establishing treatment strategies. Despite the criticism, there is much to study in this theory and contribute new elements for the benefit of improving patient care.
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Rachel Basulto Balido
Criticism of a theory is imperative in understanding its concepts and rules, and its overall usefulness. For instance, the criticism of efficacy theory can help to establish how it impacts people and nursing as a whole. This paper examines the internal and external criticism of the theory of self-efficacy.
Self-efficacy is a theory that helps to understand how people manage their nutrition, illness, and health challenges. Self-efficacy is termed by Brando-Garrido et al. (2020) as a personal sense of belief in the ability to accomplish a given objective or have control over personal motivation on a given issue. A good example is the deep belief of chronically ill patients in their ability to overcome their condition and regain full control of their lives. In the internal critique, the focus should center on examining how preconceptions are associated with the theory. Based on the concepts of internal analysis, self-efficacy is dependable on the patients or the clients because it can help to foster internal motivation to embrace change. The theory is based on the understating that the brain is a powerful organ that can help in promoting behavior change. Personal perception is the basis of the theory, whereby positive perception is associated with positive behavior among patients or clients. Özcan & Kültür (2021) state that self-efficacy is achieved through mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, and the emotional position of the patients. Mastery experience is the skills gained through practice, while vicarious experience is influenced by mentorship.
With respect to the external critique of theory, the focus is on its relevance to health, people, and nursing. Özcan, B., & Kültür, Y. Z. (2021) points out that self-efficacy theory can help people to change their minds and counter negative behaviors. Self-efficacy was coined by an American psychologist, Albert Bandura (1977), to help in understanding an effective approach to behavior change. This theory can form the basis for motivating clients or patients to tap into their internal potential and make the right behavioral changes. In nursing, efficacy theory is used to foster self-care, self-regulation, and self-management to promote the better physical and psychological well-being of patients. No et al. (2019) argue that self-efficacy is an effective approach for encouraging older patients in nursing homes to state the right state of their mind and body. Through motivation, persuasion, and emotional support, patients can develop a sense of belief to overcome their health challenges.
The internal and external critique of self-efficacy theory shows its effectiveness and usefulness in achieving the intended objectives. With regard to internal critique, the fundamental principle of the theory is that the motivation of the mind leads to behavior change. On the other hand, external critique shows that self-efficacy is applicable in addressing health and nursing problems.
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Özcan, B., & Kültür, Y. Z. (2021). The relationship between sources of mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics test and course achievement in high school seniors.